Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

longfellow3Daniel Huntington (1816-1906), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882), 1876. Oil on canvas. Graphic Arts Collection GA 2006.02629. Signed and dated on verso.

longfellow1Possibly in anticipation of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s upcoming seventieth birthday, the poet sat for the American portrait painter Daniel Huntington (1819-1906) in 1876. The resulting oil on canvas is in the collection of Princeton University Library. Huntington was one of the leading portraitists of the period, as well as president of the American Academy of Arts Council; a founding member of the Century Association; vice-president of the Metropolitan Museum of Art; and a trustee of the Lenox Library. It is surprising that he had time to continue to paint.

The Graphic Arts Collection holds eighteen portraits of Longfellow in various mediums. Here are two others.


longfellow5Unidentified photographer, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his study, no date [about 1881]. Albumen silver print. Graphic Arts collection GA 2009.01006. Dedication in ink, below: “‘Bon voyage’–To my dear young friend, E.J.S. // from Henry W. Longfellow // Cambridge, 1881”.

longfellow4Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882), 1868. Albumen silver print. Graphic Arts collection GA 2010.02212. Inscribed in ink, on mount, l.l.: “From life Registered Photograph taken at Fresh Water July 1868”.


The Flying Trapeze

sheetmusic4The Flying Trapeze was written by George Leybourne, arranged by Alfred Lee, and published by R. Wittig & Co., No. 1021 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1868.

The collection of comic songs in the Graphic Arts Collection was lithographed by Louis N. Rosenthal (born about 1824), one of four Rosenthal brothers who operated a lithography firm on Walnut Street. Born in Poland, Louis arrived in Philadelphia in 1848 and within only a few years, managed one of the first shops in the city producing lithographs for advertising, maps, magazine, books, and sheet music. The family’s youngest brother Max was their primary artist.

Once I was happy, but now I’m forlorn,
Like an old coat, all tattered and torn,
Left in this wide world to fret and to mourn,
Betrayed by a wife in her teens.
Oh, the girl that I loved she was handsome,
I tried all I knew her to please,
But I could not please one quarter as well
As the man on the flying trapeze.
She floats through the air
With the greatest of ease,
You’d think her a man
On the flying trapeze.
She does all the work
While he takes his ease,
And that’s what became of my love.


Also including Louis Rosenthal’s lithographs:
Henry Louis Stephens (1824-1882), The Comic Natural History of the Human Race (Philadelphia: S. Robinson [1851]) Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) Oversize Hamilton 1213q

Charles Wilkins Webber (1819-1856) The Hunter-Naturalist (Philadelphia: J.W. Bradley, …, 1851). Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) Oversize Hamilton 466(1)q

Report of the Committee appointed by the Philomathean Society of the University of Pennsylvania to translate the inscription on the Rosetta stone ([Philadelphia: s.n., 1859]). Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) 2006-2063N and 2006-2064N

Charles Wilkins Webber (1819-1856), Wild Scenes and Wild Hunters of the World (Philadelphia, Bradley, 1852). Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) Hamilton 466(2)

New Graphic Design Books

class book3The Graphic Arts Collection recently acquired three small DIY books for graphic design from the 1890s, 1920s, and 1950s. Here are a few samples.
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K. Lönberg-Holm (1895-1972) and Ladislav Sutnar, Catalog Design Progress (New York: Sweet’s Catalog Service, 1950). Planned and developed by the research department of Sweet’s Catalog Service. Graphic Arts Collection GA in process

Mark M. Maycock, A Class-Book of Color: including Color Definitions, Color Scaling, and the Harmony of Colors (Springfield, Mass.: Milton Bradley Co., 1895). Graphic Arts Collection GA in process

Making Show Windows Pay: a Self Study Course with Complete Instructions for Making and Arranging Window Displays for Every Occasion (Framingham, Mass.: Window Display Studio of the Dennison Manufacturing Co., 1928). Graphic Arts Collection GA in processclass book5

William Henry Jackson


In 1890, Edward Wilson asked the Denver-based photographer William Henry Jackson (1843-1942) for a negative to publish in Wilson’s Photographic Magazine. Instead of one, Jackson sent ten and Wilson printed them all.

In various copies of the April 5 issue (v. 27, no. 367) readers will find ten very different photographs, printed by the Philadelphia studio of Roberts & Fellows. The Princeton University Library copy has “Calle de Guadeloupe. Chinuahua,” showing a pastoral scene with a circle of covered wagons.

Jackson completists will have to also find “A Gen near Caviota, Mexico,” “Lagos. General view, showing the cathedral,” “Lagos, from the river,” “Queretaro Fountain, near the church. Santa Clara,” “Popocatapetl [or Popocatepetl] Mountain, from Tiamacas,” “In the Garden. Santa Barbara Mission,” “The Arizona Garden. Hotel del Monte,” “The Ferns. Hotel del Monte,” and “The Cypresses of Monterey.”

Surprisingly, Princeton also owns a separate print of “Lagos. general view, showing the cathedral” [see below] so we have two of the ten.
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Lauterbrunnen by Rudolph Müller


Rudolph Müller (1802-1885), Jungfrau and the Valley of Lauterbrunnen, 1840. Oil on canvas. Graphic Arts Collection GA 2011.01493. Gift of J. Monroe Thorington, Class of 1915.


“After a variety of windings came to an enormous rock. Arrived at the foot of the mountain, (the Jungfrau, that is, the Maiden) glaciers; torrents; one of these torrents nine hundred feet in height of visible descent. Lodged at the curate’s.

Set out to see the valley; heard an avalanche fall, like thunder; glaciers enormous; storm came on, thunder, lightning, hail; all in perfection, and beautiful . . . Swiss curate’s house very good indeed—much better than most English vicarages. It is immediately opposite the torrent I spoke of. The torrent is in shape curving over the rock, like the tail of a white horse streaming in the wind, such as it might be conceived would be that of the ‘pale horse’ on which Death is mounted in the Apocalypse.

It is neither mist nor water, but a something between both; its immense height (nine hundred feet) gives it a wave or curve, a spreading here, or condensation there, wonderful and indescribable. I think, upon the whole, that this day has been better than any of this present excursion.” –Lord Byron, “Extracts from a Journal,” September 22, 1916, in The Works of Lord Byron: In Verse and in Prose, Including His Letters, Journals, Etc. (Firestone PR4350 .E46)


lauterbrunnen-42Contemporary view of Lauterbrunnen

Congratulations to the winners of the 2016 Elmer Adler Undergraduate Book Collecting Prize

The winners of the 2016 Elmer Adler Undergraduate Book Collecting Prize were announced at the Friends of the Princeton University Library’s winter dinner that took place last Sunday (April 24). The jury awarded first, second, and third prize.

First prize was awarded to Samantha Flitter, Class of 2016, for her essay, “The Sand and the Sea: An Age of Sail in Rural New Mexico” in which she discusses her collection of books concerning British maritime history and the Age of Sail that, as she explains, allows her to “experience another world as viscerally as if it were my own.” Samantha received a prize of $2000, and Peter T. Leeson’s book The Invisible Hook: The Hidden Economics of Pirates. Samantha’s essay will represent Princeton in the National Collegiate Book Collecting Competition, which is sponsored by the Antiquarian Booksellers’ Association of America.

Second prize was awarded to Preston Lim, Class of 2017. Preston’s essay, entitled “From Burma to Baku: Travel and the Art of War” is about his interest in military history, specifically the South African War and the First and Second World Wars, that began upon learning of his grandfather’s experiences as a partisan fighter in China during World War II. Preston received a prize of $1500, and a copy of Reluctant Accomplice: A Wehrmacht Soldier’s Letters from the Eastern Front edited by Konrad H. Jarausch.

Third prize was awarded to Alex Cuadrado, Class of 2016, for his essay, “Memories and Itineraries: The Pilgrim’s Guide to the World,” in which Alex discusses his collection of pilgrimage itineraries and narratives that includes personal artifacts from his own travels. Alex received a prize of $1,000, and Roxanne L. Euben’s book, Journeys to the Other Shore: Muslim and Western Travelers in Search of Knowledge.

winnersPreston Lim and Alex Cuadrado

Each of the winners will also receive a certificate from the Dean of the College. The book prizes, chosen to complement each student’s collecting focus, were donated by the Princeton University Press.

Thanks to this year’s judges for their congenial service: Claire Jacobus, member of the Friends; John Logan, Literature Bibliographer; Louise Marshall Kelly, member of the Friends; Eric White, Rare Books Curator; and Melissa Verhey, Department of French and Italian PhD candidate and member of the Student Friends.

Congratulations to our winners!!
Posted by Faith Charlton, Processing Archivist, Americana Collections

Lulu Farini, Cross-Dressing Acrobat and Amateur Photographer

karini3karini2A photograph entitled “Cape Town, Africa” by Lulu Farini (Samuel Wasgott, 1855-1939) of Bridgeport, Connecticut, was printed in the September 1887 issue of The Philadelphia Photographer. The negative was made by a celebrated cross-dressing acrobat, born Samuel Wasgatt who performed under the name El Niño Farini and later, Lulu [above right].

Born in the United States, Wasgatt became the protégée of a Canadian acrobat William L. Hunt (1838-1929), also known as Signor Guillermo Farini [above left]. While working in France, the Farninis made the decision to dress the slender young boy as a girl and for five years the change went undetected. Their sold-out performances included various acts on a trapeze, tightrope walking, and being shot out of a cannon, now advertised as The Great Farini and Lulu.











In 1885, the Farinis traveled to South Africa and Lulu (who had returned to dressing as a man and married Hunt’s daughter), documented their journey in the Kalahari Desert with his camera. Returning later that year, Lulu had several exhibitions of these photographs in London http://erps.dmu.ac.uk/exhibitor_details.php?year=1885&efn=Lulu+Farini and then, published them in the book Through the Kalahari Desert; a Narrative of a Journey with Gun, Camera, and Note-book to Lake N’gami and Back (Firestone (F) DT995.K2 F2 1886).

In 1887,  Lulu Farnini submitted one of his photographs to The Philadelphia Photographer, where over 6,000 copies were printed and published as the frontispiece of the September issue. Edward Wilson wrote: “Through the courtesy of Mr. Lulu Farini, Bridgeport, Conn., we are permitted once more to give a picture of that far-off, though well-known country—a view of Cape Horn and vicinity. Altogether, it is one of the strangest of landscapes, showing the curious site of a curious city and its marvelous natural surroundings. . . With reference to the view, we refer to a letter received from the talented African traveller and excellent photographer, Mr. Farini, who writes as follows:

“Is it possible that there is enough merit in my poor picture of Cape Horn and the Lion’s Head to justify its being honored by publication in your magazine?’ I have always felt a consciousness that this particular plate should be classed among the failures, not only on account of its technical imperfections, but because of its conveying so feeble an impression of a scene worth travelling many thousand miles to witness. When I look at this picture it makes me feel sad to think that I must be content with so insignificant a reward for the labor and patience expended on its production.”

“During the week’s interval between our landing at the Cape and continuing our journey southward to the Kalahari Desert, I found food for my camera in Cape Town and its picturesque surroundings. Instantaneous views from a row-boat were made of the harbor and town, backed with Table Mountain, which towers above the whole like a perpendicular wall 5000 feet high; to reach its summit one must climb by circuitous paths, and the time required to perform this upward journey averages six hours.”

“But, providing the sky is clear, no one will regret the laborious task, for the view from this elevation is magnificent. Not infrequently, however, is the sightseer not only disappointed, but put to considerable inconvenience and risk of personal safety, for it is no rare occurrence to have a dense fog shut down over the mountain totally obscuring the distant view, and, at the same time, increasing the difficulty and danger of climbing—in fact, many lives have been lost where the impatient tourist has rebelled against a prolonged imprisonment, and in attempting to regain a lower altitude, has fallen over the perpendicular cliff.”-L. Farnini



farini (2)“The Change in Lulu,” Chicago Daily Tribune September 12, 1885: 12.

The American Coloritype Company

kurtz1“Learning of Georg Meisenbach’s success with halftone printing in England, [William] Kurtz set out to reproduce the process and in doing so, became one of the United States’ first commercial practitioners of reproducing photographic plates in halftone prints . . . Likewise, when Hermann Wilhelm Vogel’s advances in color photography became known, Kurtz arranged to purchase the American rights to the ‘three-color process’ from Vogel and was able to devise a way to apply it to halftone printing.” (S.H. Horgan, Inland Printer, August 1921)

William Kurtz’s first three-color photoengraving, called a Coloritype, was published in the January 1, 1893, issue of Photographische Mittheilungen, Vogel’s Berlin photography journal. Two months later, the same image was used as a frontispiece of The Engraver & Printer, a small trade publication, which had attempted three-color printing several years earlier (see John Bidwell, “’The Engraver and Printer’, a Boston Trade Journal of the Eighteen Nineties,” The Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America 71, no. 1 (1977): 29-48).

After these two relatively limited uses of the process, Edward Wilson financed the printing of over 6,000 Coloritypes for the May 1893 issue of Wilson’s Photographic Magazine [seen above]. “This illustration,” wrote Horgan, “proved to the whole printing world that reproductions of colors by photography into three half-tone blocks to be printed in colored inks had arrived.”

Contrary to published sources, Kurtz applied for and received a patent on his process (Letters Patent of the U.S. no. 498,396A granted May 30, 1893), but this did little to stop printers and publishers across the country making their own three-color prints.

While Kurtz’s Coloritype Company leased five floors at 32 Lafayette in lower Manhattan, with a public gallery on the ground floor, Gustave Zeese formed the Chicago Colortype Company (dropping the ‘I’ from the name), Julius Regenstein established the Photo Colortype Company, and Frederick Osgood’s Osgood Engraving Company switched to Colortypes. In New York, the Moss Colortype Company did the same but advertised theirs as Moss-types. Kurtz’s $200,000 investment was overwhelmed by it competitors and his company was eventually bought-out, leaving Kurtz bankrupt.

Edward Wilson had for many years been documenting the experiments of Vogel, Kurtz, and others in his monthly magazine. Here is the note he published in the April 1893 issue of Wilson’s Photographic Magazine, describing the history of three-color printing to date.

See also: American Colortype Company. Annual report (Clifton, N.J.: The Company). RECAP HD9729 .A49.

Note: Most of the digital sources of early colortype printing have been reproduced online without color and so, original paper sources must be used for research. See: The Philadelphia Photographer (Philadelphia, Pa.: Benerman & Wilson, 1864-1888). Continued by Wilson’s Photographic Magazine. Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) 2015-0580N and 2007 0008M.

An index to the photographs and early photoengravings published by Wilson is being completed and will be published here soon.

The first emblem book written by a woman

georgia [left] 2nd edition 1584 Zurich; [center] 3rd edition 1619 Frankfurt; [right] 4th edition 1620 Rochelle

Thanks to a recent acquisition, made jointly by the rare book division and the graphic arts collection, Princeton researchers now have the opportunity to study Georgette de Montenay’s rare emblem book through three consecutive editions, three publishers, and three unique physical volumes. In addition, we can follow the transfer of the one hundred copper plates by the French goldsmith, painter, and sculptor Pierre Woeiriot (1532-1599) as they moved from Switzerland to Germany to France for more than fifty years, reprinted with no visible damage or deterioration and outliving both the artist and the author.
On zealous affection and intelligence
Spirit, heart, speech and voice
All in agreement; instrument, books, fingers
I sing to my God’s excellence
O’ quill in my hand, not in vain,
From which I write
The praises of Christ
The promise of financial reward is not what leads you on [an anagram for the author’s name:]


“Georgette de Montenay has been the object of enduring scholarly interest, not only as the first woman author of an emblem book, but also as the creator of a new literary and artistic genre: the religious emblem. Most probably converted to Protestantism under the influence of Jeanne d’Albret, Queen of Navarre (to whose court she was attached after her marriage to Guyon de Gout, c. 1562), de Montenay composed a series of one hundred militant Christian octets in the mid-1560s and closely supervised their illustration by a gifted Lyonnaise etcher, Pierre Woeiriot, who was also of the reformed persuasion.

The Emblesmes ou devises chrestiennes were finally published in 1571 by a brother in religion, Jean Marcorelle, and were to have an immediate success.”—Sara F. Matthews Grieco, “Georgette de Montenay” Renaissance Quarterly 47, no.4 (Winter 1994). Since this article, a copy found in the Royal Library in Copenhagen suggests that Montenay’s book may have appeared even earlier.
georgia3Note that the words “Vera effigies Reginae Navarrae” have been added to the first engraved emblem in our newly acquired 1619 edition.


Georgette de Montenay (1540-approximately 1581), Georgiae Montaneae, nobilis Gallae, Emblematum Christianorum centuria / cum eorundem Latina interpretatione = Cent emblemes chrestiens (Tigvri: Apud Christophorum Froschouerum, 1584). Translation of Emblemes ou devises chrestiennes; text in Latin and French. Engravings by Pierre Woeiriot (1532-1599). These plates were used for the first French ed., 1571.-cf.Landwehr. Rare Books: Miriam Y. Holden Collection (ExHolden) N7710 .M66 1584

Georgette de Montenay (1540-approximately 1581), Monumenta Emblematum Christianorum (Frankfurt am Main: Jean Charles Unckel, 1619). Illustrations printed from plates engraved by Pierre Woeiriot (1532-1599). Polyglot edition with engraved title page by Peter Rollas and added engraved portrait of Jeanne d’Albret. Purchased with funds from Rare Book Division and Graphic Arts Collection

Georgette de Montenay (1540-approximately 1581), Emblèmes, ou devises chrestiennes (Rochelle: Par Iean Dinet, 1620). Illustrations printed from plates engraved by Pierre Woeiriot (1532-1599). “The sheets are those of the 1571 edition, with a new title page.” Cf. Praz. Rare Books (Ex) N7710 .M66 1620

Twelfth-Century Buddha of Infinite Light

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100 buddhas4The oldest known printed or stamped Buddhist images are these seated Amida Buddhas (or Buddha of Infinite Light), dating from around the 12th century.

According to art historian Mary Baskett, “All the prints, crudely printed or stamped, are direct and simple witness of the faith of the Late Heian period (898-1185). The practice of stamping images from woodblocks was an act of devotion and the act of printing was as important, if not more important, than the print itself. Thousands of images were stamped and personal merit could be accumulated by printing multiple images of the Buddha.”

While some of the preserved sheets were carved and printed (suributsu) from one woodblock, the incomplete sheet in the Graphic Arts Collection is stamped (imbutsu) from several blocks or one repeated block. Each group has twelve buddhas in four rows of three each. (Below is an example of a printed sheet from the Museum of Fine Arts Boston). Our sheet, a gift of Gillett G. Griffin, appears to match the ones discovered in the Jô ruri Temple, where they were stored for centuries inside a carved sculpture of Buddha.

SC228185Museum of Fine Arts Boston http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/amida-buddha-sheet-of-100-figures-243835

For more information, see the exhibition catalogue “Footprints of the Buddha: Japanese Buddhist Prints from American and Japanese Collections,” (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1980). Marquand Library NE1310 .B32

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