To The Moon

*play this full screen

In case you missed “To The Moon” last summer 2019 at the Museum of Natural History, you have a brief opportunity to catch it as part of the Under the Radar festival this month. Created by Laurie Anderson, Visiting Lecturer in the Princeton Atelier, and Hsin-Chien Huang, the virtual reality experience flies you through constellations built from molecular equations and alphabets forming DNA skeletons that merge science, literature, and graphic art. Commissioned by the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebæk, Denmark; The National Culture and Arts Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan; and National Taiwan Normal University, it is 15 minutes of lunar phantasmagoria. Unlike our pre-cinema collection of optical devices, this might be considered post-cinema.

The theater cautions: This production is not recommended for people with serious medical conditions including heart ailments. Pregnant women, the elderly, or anyone who risks serious injury from falling and people with epilepsy, or who are prone to seizures, dizziness, vertigo, fainting or motion sickness are not encouraged to participate in this production. As sensitivities vary from person to person, if you have specific questions regarding content, please call us at 212.967.7555.

Together with Arto Lindsay, Anderson has been teaching ATL 499, Spatial Sound, in which students “explore wave field synthesis including the dynamics of short stories, parades, suspended grammar, psychic states, animal consciousness, and depth of field in sound and film. Special attention will be paid to experimental forms of sound installation, use of different spatial techniques in live concerts, and spatial theater.” Final projects were presented on Friday, January 10, at Princeton University. https://arts.princeton.edu/events/spatial-sound-story-and-image/

A library for our times, cash only

From now until February 28, 2020, the lounge at 185 Nassau Street, Lewis Center for the Arts, has “slipped into a reading lounge. Sitting next to the existing vending machine with snacks is its fraternal partner, 2019-20 Hodder Fellow Ryan Gander’s vending machine containing USB sticks of over 300 annotated essays. Collected together to form a library for our times, The Annotated Reader project includes texts of almost 300 contributors including the Faculty in Visual Arts. Is there one piece of writing that you would want with you for company in the small hours? All are welcome to come sit and read.”
https://arts.princeton.edu/events/the-annotated-reader/

Unlike his art vending machine that dispensed random artworks for a £500 fee during the London Frieze arts fair last fall, the Princeton vending machine only costs $1.00 for a complete book. The art machine contained a total of 125 items, including stones that Gander has collected with his children, as well as cast versions of some of the most widely used and affordable digital watches.

“The rest of the installation [at Frieze] includes paintings and a book, which is a version If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler, a 1979 novel by Italian writer Italo Calvino, that Gander has re-typed using a typeface of his own invention that no one can read, in which the letters are replaced by shapes of stones–the same stones that can be obtained from the vending machine. The paintings are enlarged pages from the book, printed using the illegible stone typeface, then annotated over by the artist with black ink. ‘I repeated the annotations over them with a large calligraphy brush. They become a form of censorship, it makes them illegible in a way. But through that process they become an abstract, expressionist motif of what art is,’ he said. ‘The book is published. We will distribute these unreadable books in hospitals, prisons, hotels, lighthouses — places that have time abundance and attention abundance,’ he continued, adding that he’s replaced the bible in the hotel room up for grabs with a copy of the book.—Jacopo Prisco, CNN

Gander currently lives and creates in London and Suffolk, visiting Princeton periodically during his fellowship year. His work encompasses graphic design, installation, performance, and more, and he has garnered international attention as he challenges notions of knowledge, language, and understanding. He is drawn to the contradictions in paradoxes and the ambiguity of life. His work often unites the mundane and commonplace with the aberrant and extraordinary.

His recent solo shows include exhibitions at Esther Schipper in Berlin, The National Museum of Art in Osaka, Hyundai Gallery in Seoul, Contemporary Art Gallery in Vancouver, and Manchester Art Gallery in Manchester. His most recent publications include The Boy That Always Looked Up, Picasso and I, and the monograph Culturefield. He has been presented with the 2007 Paul Hamlyn Award for Visual Arts, the 2006 ABN AMRO prize of the Netherlands and the 2009 Zürich Art Prize.

Gander studied at Manchester Metropolitan in the U.K., Rijksakademie van Beeldende Kunsten and the Jan van Eyck Akademie, both in the Netherlands. He has been a visiting lecturer at a number of European art schools throughout the continent. He was also awarded Doctor of Arts of the Manchester Metropolitan University and Honoris Causa for his efforts in academia.—https://arts.princeton.edu/news/2019/11/screening-of-me-my-selfie-and-i-followed-by-talk-with-artist-ryan-gander-presented-by-lewis-center-for-the-arts-program-in-visual-arts/

21,552 portraits in a treen

Changeable Portraits of Ladies (London: R. Ackermann, Jan. 1, 1819). Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2020- in process

Followed rapidly by ‘Chageable Ladies’ (1819), the Changeable Gentleman’ novelty was introduced by Rudolph Ackermann in London in 1818. It consisted of a set of caricature-profile cards … in which each picture is horizontally cut into three divisions corresponding, roughly, to hair, forehead, and eyes in the top portion; nose and ear in the narrower middle part; and mouth, chin, and neck in the lower part. The divisions allow productions of an infinite variety of faces. The cards are presented in wooden slide-top boxes … each having wooden dividers to separate upper, middle, and lower sections.–Michael Twyman, Encyclopedia of Ephemera

This clever variation on a transformation or metamorphosis game involves a series of 28 hand colored aquatint portraits, each cut into three sections arranged in a treen or a small wooden box with three compartments and a sliding lid. According to the instructions (under the lid) this toy permits the possibility of twenty-one thousand nine hundred and fifty-two different permutations.

“Each Head being separated into three moveable parts, the changing of any one of these parts will produce a new face including many celebrated characters, such as Queen Elizabeth, Queen Mary, Catherine II, &c. &c.; in short, almost every imaginable diversity of countenance and character. the grand, the grotesque, the beautiful, the whimsical, may be instantly produced in the most pleasing, surprising, and even laughable varieties.”


The instructions further note “it is hoped that the physiognomical apparatus here presented to the public will afford a very curious and almost inexhaustible fund for Lavaterian experiment.”

See also: John Ford, Rudolf Ackermann and the Regency World, 2018, p. 21.
See also: https://graphicarts.princeton.edu/2016/03/11/physogs/
and
https://graphicarts.princeton.edu/2019/03/08/jeu-dovide/

Bourne’s Views of New York 1831

Thanks to the generous gift of Stuart P. Feld, Class of 1957, and Mrs. Feld, the Graphic Arts Collection now holds 14 engravings on 7 sheets, framed, after Charles Burton from the series Bourne’s Views of New York, first printing. The drawings were made for George Melksham Bourne, who issued the series of New York views in 1831, engraved by J. Smillie, Archer, Gimber, H. Fossette, and others, then printed by John Neale. This first issue of the Bourne plates can be distinguished by Bourne’s imprint and copyright notice, which are removed from later issues of plates published by Disturnell. The views now at Princeton are as follows:

Plate 9: Council Chamber, City Hall [with] Public Room, Merchant’s Exchange

Plate 11: Phenix Bank, Wall St. [with] United States’ Branch Bank

Plate 12: Brooklyn Ferry, Fulton St. [with] Steam Boat Wharf, Whitehall Street

Plate 14: St. George’s Church, Beekman St. [with] Clinton Hall, Beekman St.

Plate 15: Church of the Ascension, Canal St. [with] Exchange Place Looking to Hanover St.

Plate 17: St. Luke’s Church, Hudson Street, New York [with] The Reservoir, Bowery, New York.

Plate 18: St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Mott St. [with] St. Peter’s Church, Barclay St.


According to Gloria Deak, in her Picturing America 1497-1899 “The set of engravings the George Melksham Bourne issued from his shop on Broadway near Franklin Street in 1831 is generally considered the most beautifully executed sequence of small New York views.” [Graphic Arts 2014-0771Q, p. 262]

 


Carl Browne’s Vote Maker [for the People’s Party] 1892

Trained as a commercial house painter, Calisthenes “Carl” Dryden Browne (1849-1914) adapted his skill with a paintbrush to produce gigantic oil paintings on popular themes, beginning in 1869 with The Lord’s Supper, followed by Yosemite Valley, the Franco-Prussian War, and other spectacles. For six months in 1886, Browne rented a San Francisco theater not far from Market Square where he exhibited a panorama entitled Battle of Gettysburg, charging a small admission fee. Although no images survive, it has been described as a series of panels that formed a circle around the audience. On various nights Browne appeared alongside the paintings to entertaining the pubic with oratory that was part history, part religion, and part his own personal mythology.

Not surprisingly, the charismatic speaker became active in politics, working for the United States Labor Party, the Workingmen’s Party, and in the spring of 1892, elected a delegate to the People’s Party convention in Omaha, Nebraska. In preparation, Browne painted 14 gigantic scenes, 7 ¼ x 14 feet each, on canvas that could be rolled and transported to the July convention where he spoke for three hours alongside his paintings, “prepared as object lessons to inform those who have not devoted time and thought to this movement of the people … the causes, aspirations and hopes of this people’s party.”

Browne was such a hit, the paintings became known as Carl Brown’s [sic] Vote Maker, and the state committee of Nebraska arranged with him to campaign throughout the state for the People’s Party ticket of James B. Weaver and James G. Field (which won the national vote in four states). The artist also made quick miniature sketches [seen here] of the paintings to be published along with his commentary. Only three copies exist today but thanks to the University of California and Hathi Trust, a digital version can be read at: https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.31175035166548&view=thumb&seq=36

I will not attempt to summarize the three hour commentary but Browne ended with a brief quote from Lester C. Hubbard’s recently published The Coming Climax in the Destinies of America: “It shall be that plain of Armageddon dimly seen by ancient seers, where the brute nature and immortal soul of man close in a final contest, which shall herald the dawning of the era of love and tenderness when nations shall know the fatherhood of God and live the brotherhood of man. This was the prayer made by Him of many sorrows when dying on Calvary’s cross, and at last it shall come true, for the everlasting God hath so ordained it.”

Imagine these 14 feet long and brightly painted.

How to color a hyacinth


The Florist. Containing Sixty Plates of the Most Beautiful Flowers Regularly Dispos’d in Their Succession of Blowing to Which Is Added an Accurate Description of Their Colours, with Instructions for Drawing & Painting Them According to Nature: Being a New Work Intended for the Use & Amusement of Gentlemen and Ladies Delighting in That Art (London: Robert Sayer and Thomas Bowles, ca. 1760). Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2019- in process.

Provenance: Thomas Baskerfeild (1752-1816), a wealthy artist from Bedforshire who lived on the profits his father made as a drysalter (“a dealer in chemical products, dyes, etc. or, formerly, in dried or salted foods”) in partnership with Sir Richard Glyn in Hatton Garden. His library was sold by Sotheby’s in a sale that lasted seven days beginning November 13, 1817, and raised a total of £1426.

 

The Graphic Arts Collection has a spectacular new botanical drawing book, one of the first painting manuals designed for adult use. Published by Robert Sayer (1725-1794) in collaboration with Thomas, Robert,  and Carington Bowles, the work includes a suite of 60 plates depicting specific flowers, together with detailed instructions on how to color each one. The principal colors are listed in the introductory text [above], all of which could be obtained from the publisher: “Ladies and Gentlemen may be supply’d with the aforemention’d Colours, and all other, carefully prepar’d: Also, all Materials for Drawing and Painting, at the most reasonable Rates, by the Publisher of this Work” (p. 3). Specific instructions for coloring each flower are then given, with information on the particular recommended colors.

 

This edition is dated to ca. 1760 because of the “John Bowles and Son” in the imprint, since the family worked under this name from 1753 until 1764. In Blanche Henrey’s British botanical and horticultural literature before 1800 (Reference Collection Z5352 .H45), he notes three editions using the same plates and title-page, with the major difference between the first two being the numbering of the text section as pp. 61-76 rather than pp. [1]-16, as here. Henrey’s third edition includes the name of Jonathan Bennett in the imprint. Both text and plates were later copied and published under the title Bowles’ Florist. Henrey notes only seeing one copy of each of the editions mentioned, two copies black and white and the copy noted for the present edition being the only colored one (at CKC). “The compiler has, so far, seen only one copy of this edition [no. 709, the Bennett edition] of The Florist. It is in the Lindley Library, R.H.S. and the plates are uncoloured. According to a statement on the title-page coloured copies were also obtainable.” As shown here, Princeton’s book is uncolored.

 

 

Another edition not mentioned in Henrey has the imprint “Sold by I. Smith, at Hogarth’s Head, Cheapside, London” (OCLC lists Wellcome only). As well as the entries in OCLC and ESTC, Yale Center for British Art has two copies, one of which is colored, and Virginia’s Oak Spring Garden Library also has a copy.

 


“Painting having already had so many eloquent and powerful advocates, it would now seem impertinent to tire the Reader in endeavouring to prove that Art noble and delightful. That it is so, the ingenious have always in the strongest manner confessed by their constant attention and encouragement: therefore, the only use here made of an introduction will be to inform the purchasers of this work, of the plan on which it is executed.”

Mélodies illustrées 1892-1893

Henri Gabriel Ibels (1867-1936); Théophile Alexandre Steinlen (1859-1923); Georges De Feure (1868-1928); Adolphe Willette (1857-1926); and Georges Auriol (1863-ca.1938), Mélodies Illustrées. 1892-1893. Lithographic and gillotage illustrated sheet music. Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2019- in process.

A spectacular collection of French illustrated sheet music is now available in the Graphic Arts Collection: 46 with covers designed by H. G Ibels (43 in color and 3 in black and white); 33 by T. A. Steinlen (25 in color and 8 black and white); 4 in black and white by or after Adolphe Willette; 2 in color by G. De Feure, and 1 with a color cover after G. Auriol. Some covers are reproduced by lithography and some by gillotage (a relief process made by transferring a lithographic image to a metal plate).

 

In addition, this group includes the play L’amour S’amuse by Etienne Decrept (sayings in verse performed at La Scala by Mévisto & Camille Stéfani) illustrated by Ibels with five color lithographs and published by Georges Ondet in 1892 [above].

Parisian theater programs, posters, and sheet music designed by leading French artists were preserved by a limited audience of collectors and aficionados, making these fragile sheets rare in libraries and archives today. While Graphic Arts collects them for the cover, listing them by artist, they also preserve the popular music and lyrics of the period so important to the café-concert culture. A good example is [below] the sheet music for Mère moderne by V. Damiens, Saint-Gilles, and Emile Spencer, performed by Irène Henry and Blanche Fréda (with a cover by Ibels).


Particularly interesting is a series of French songs performed by Julies Mévisto (Mevisto the Elder, 1857-1918), many written by Montojay and Gaston Maquis, designed by Ibels with a Pierrot character on the cover.

Ibels’ first public success came from his 1892 poster of the popular singer Jules Mévisto, for whom he also lithographed his first sheet-music covers, published by Ondet in the early 1895. Mévisto was one of a growing number of singers who interpreted the repertoire of the Montmartre chansonnier-poètes in both the cabarets and in the more lucrative café-concerts. Mévisto had a distinctive stage personality; he dramatized the lyrics he sang with the exaggerated gestures of pantomime and affected different “voices” for the various characters in his songs. Hence, many of Ibels’ cover illustrations for Mévisto focus on the image of the singer himself rather than on the lyrics.–Gale B. Murray, “Music illustration in the circle of Bonnard,” Prints Abound, Paris in the 1890s (National Gallery of Art, 2000). Marquand Library Oversize NE649.P3 C37 2000q


Confession of a Mistake sung by Anna Thibaud (1861-1948) , words by Hector Sombre (died 1894), music by Gustave Goublier (pseudonym for Gustave Conin 1856-1926).

Titles by cover artist:
Georges Auriol, Quand Les Lilas Refleuriront.

Georges De Feure, Ménage D’artiste; and Lorsque Les Femmes Sont Jolies.

H.G. Ibels, L’amour Est Un Rêve; Ceux D’la Côte; Jean-Pierre; Retour Au Nid; La Valse Des Bas Noirs; Si Vous Le Vouliez, O Mademoiselle; Amoureuse!; Serment Trahi; Amoureux!; Aubade À La Lune; Comment On S’aime…; Cœur Meurtri; Elle, Cantique D’amour Dit Par J. Mévisto À L’horloge; Femme Honnête; La Chanson Du Macchabée; La Fin D’une Bordée; La Morgue; La Mort Du Propre À Rien; La Petite Correspondance Du Gil-Blas; La Valse Des Cotillons; L’aveu De La Faute; La Rose Et Pierrot; Restons Chez Nous; Pierrot Médecin; Pauvres Hommes, Si L’on Voulait!; Mimi, Chanson Créée Par J. Mévisto; Mes Moutons; Mère Moderne; Mensonges, Romance Répertoire Mercadier; Lettre D’amour; Lettre D’un Mari Trompé, Chanson Créée Par J. Mévisto; Les Veuves Du Luxembourg, Créée Par J. Mévisto; Les Pousse-Caillou; Les Petites Mères; Les Mal Tournés, Chanson Créée Par Mévisto; Les Malchanceux, Créée Par Mévisto; Les Culs-Terreux, Poésie De René Esse; Les Camarades; Les Bibis; Le Pitre; Le Pardon; Le 27, Poésie De René Esse; La Mort Des Gueux; La Danse Des Ventres; and La Chanson Du Rouet.

T.A. Steinlen: Chanson Des Conscrits, Créée Par Caudieux; Boul’vard Des Capucines; Au Quartier Bréda; Du Mouron Pour Les P’tits Oiseaux; A L’atelier; J’te Vas Coller Un Paing!; Et Voilà Pourquoi Madeleine…; En R’filant La Comète; Député!; L’heureux Dragon; L’aiguilleur; La Chanson De La Vie; La Toussaint Héroïque; La Râfle; La Pécheresse; Mon Homme!; Mon Tra Déri Tra; Maman, Conte Pour Noël; Lettre D’un Gréviste; Les Suiveurs; Les P’tits Martyrs!; Les Omnibus; Le Rêve De Trottin; Le Bataillon De Cythère; Le Bouton De Chemise; Les Rouleux; Quand Tu Feras Un Gosse; Regrets À Ninon; Sur L’eau; Vierge À Vendre, Monologue De Ch. Aubert; L’aveu De La Faute; La Marche De La Garde; and La Joueuse D’orgue.

A. Willette: Le Baiser; Tout Simplement…; Ohé ! Les Mœurs.. ; and Les Enfants & Les Mères.

 

Henry Martin’s Spots

What do you picture when you hear the word “book”? Henry Martin pictured hundreds of iconic images, which he delivered weekly to the offices of the New Yorker over dozens of years.

 

As various archives are making big news this week, our archive of Henry Martin’s drawings sits quietly in the vault, no salacious letters to uncover or celebrity photos. Martin, class of 1948, worked as a cartoonist and illustrator for more than forty-five years, publishing in the New Yorker, Ladies’ Home Journal, Saturday Evening Post, and many other magazines. He also had a single-panel comic strip, “Good News/Bad News,” which was nationally syndicated.

Martin had his first drawing accepted at the New Yorker in April 1950, ten years before his first cartoon was accepted. The drawing was a “spot,” one of the tiny iconographic images that appear throughout the magazine. Many artists began this way, including his colleague Peter Arno, whose biography notes: “The first ever New Yorker spot drawing appeared on page three of the first issue—the template for one kind of spot that continued to appear in the magazine until 2005. The drawing, a rectangle at the bottom of the middle column on the Talk of the Town page, was unsigned and had the appearance of a woodcarving.”–Michael Maslin, Peter Arno (2016).

See Martin listed, alphabetically, with other celebrated cartoonists.

 

It is these drawings or “spots,” for which Martin is best represented in the magazine. A search of the New Yorker’s cartoon database reveals 188 cartoons while our archive of Martin’s drawings shows he made over 1,000 spots. “Books” is just one set from a series of boxes and envelopes. Unlike today’s New Yorker spots, there is no running gag or theme, just pure image. Here are a few more samples. Happy New Year.

 

Remedies for the vices of speech

Antoine de Bourgogne (ca. 1594-1657). Linguae vitia & remedia Emblematicè expressa (Antwerp: Widow Cnobbaert, 1652). Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2019- in process.

Small oblong 16mo (74 x 97 mm). [12] leaves, 191, [1 bl.] pages ; etched title, 93 full-page etchings. Nineteenth-century red morocco with triple gilt fillet borders, spine and turn-ins gold-tooled, edges gilt over marbling, by Trautz-Bauzonnet. Provenance: James Toovey (1814-1893), London bookseller, armorial gilt bookplate with motto inter folia fructus.

 

This copy includes the cancelled leaf A8, blank except for pagination and headline on the verso. Interesting that it come at the description of an echo.

Rare book historian Nina Musinsky regards this as one of the most delightful of the Netherlandish emblem books, with 94 miniature etchings. This second Latin edition reprints the same plates and text as that of 1631, which was published at the same time as a Flemish-language edition.

Musinsky notes, “The purpose of the book was to list and propose remedies for the “vices” of speech: garrulousness, equivocation, insults, foul language, detraction, blasphemy, lying, perjury and calumny. The theme can be traced back to antiquity, having been treated by Plutarch in the Moralia; but the author, a member of the secular clergy at the Cathedral of Bruges, was more immediately influenced by Erasmus’s De linguae usu ac abusu” (1525. Princeton Rare Books 2949.32.46).

 

Part 1 provides examples of improper or sinful speech; two introductory emblems (the first a grisly vision of hell) are followed by 45 examples of such speech, each with an etched emblem on the verso and a motto and four-line poem on the facing recto, with an occasional note in smaller italic type at the foot of the page.

 


Part 2, with 45 more etchings, turns to the remedies for each kind of evil language (each number responds to the same number in the first part). The delicate unsigned etchings are attributed, apparently without question, to Jacobus Neeffs (1610-1660) and Andries Pauli (or Pauwels) the elder (1600-1639), after designs by Abraham van Diepenbeeck (1596-1675), who dominated Antwerp book illustration at the time.

See more designs by Abraham van Diepenbeeck in three other books at Princeton: The Holy Bible: containing the bookes of the Old & New. Cambridge [England] : Printed by John Field …, 1659-1660. William H. Scheide Library 63.9

The temple of the Muses, or, The principal histories of fabulous antiquity : represented in sixty sculptures / designed and ingraved by Bernard Picart le Romain and other celebrated masters ; with explications and remarks, which discover the true meaning of the fables, and their foundation in history. Amsterdam : Printed for Zachariah Chatelain, 1733. Rare Books Oversize NE1715 .P6f

William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle 1592-1676. A general system of horsemanship in all it’s branches: containing a faithful translation of that most noble and useful work of His Grace, William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, entitled, The manner of feeding, dressing and training of horses for the great saddle … with all the original copper-plates in number forty-three …    London: J. Brindley, 1743. Rare Books Oversize 4235.673f

 

 

References: Landwehr (3rd ed.) 96; Funck, Livre belge à gravures, p. 284; Forum, The Children’s World of Learning, part 7, no. 3815; cf. Praz, p. 292 (1631 Latin edition); de Vries, De Nederlandsche Emblemata132 (1631 Flemish edition).

 

 

Perforated embroidery patterns

The Graphic Arts Collection recently acquired a group of 83 perforated designs or pounce patterns, assumed to be stencils made to transfer a design to fabric for embroidery or other decoration. In addition, there is a circular from August Bernard, described as the successor to Leon Cendrier, “designer, manufacturer, & importer of perforated French stamping patterns for braiding and embroidery,” located at 401 Canal Street, New York City. There is nothing on the sheets to verify they are from Bernard’s shop, but the flier confirms he had, at that time, the largest collection of such patterns in the United States, so it is likely these came Bernard.


One other possible source for these vegetable parchment patterns might be Mrs. T.G. Farnham. On the verso of one of the decorated initial patterns is the rubber stamp of “Mrs. T.G. Farnham, Art Needlework, Stamping, Embroidery, Etc., 16 West 14th St., N.Y. City.”

In the 1880s, Farnham advertised perforated patterns etc. for sale in such magazines as Harper’s Bazar and The Youth’s Companion and was the author of Home Beautiful, a Descriptive Catalogue of Art Needle Work (New York, 1884).

The article on the left was found in New York’s Great Industries: Exchange and Commercial Review, Embracing Also Historical and Descriptive Sketch of the City, Its Leading Merchants and Manufacturers .. (Historical Publishing Company, 1884). Neither Bernard or Cendrier are listed.

Of course, anyone can make their own patterns but these are extremely detailed and regular in their piercing, suggesting they were made by an experienced commercial vendor.

Both Bernard and Farnham also sold the colored powders and fine felt pounces used to apply the powders to the patterns. The same waxy blue powder is found on the rectos of most of the patterns in the portfolio, indicating they were all used by the same person. One of the patterns bears a partial watermark “CO. DALTON MA”, suggesting that the vegetable parchment was made by Crane and Company.

Most paper stencils were used and soon discarded as they became worn out. The Graphic Arts Collection has a number of metal stencils and horsehair Japanese stencils but very few on paper or vegetable parchment as these have been described. This is a rare surviving collection.

83 needlework stamping patterns and a circular issued by August Bernard of New York City ([New York: August Bernard?, ca. 1880s]). Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2020- in process.