The Trial of Elizabeth Canning 1754

The Trial of Elizabeth Canning, Spinster, for Willful and Corrupt Perjury; at Justice Hall in the Old-Bailey, held by Adjournment, on Monday the 29th of April, Wednesday the 1st, Friday the 3d, Saturday the 4th, Monday the 6th (London: printed by the authority and appointment of the Right Honourable Thomas Rawlinson Esq; Lord Mayor, for John Clarke under the Royal Exchange, and sold also by M. Cooper in Pater-Noster Row, [1754]).

Bound with Crisp Gascoyne, An Address to the Liverymen of the City of London, from Sir Crisp Gascoyne, Knt. Late Lord-Mayor, relative to his conduct in the cases of Elizabeth Canning and Mary Squires (London: printed for James Hodges at London-Bridge, [1754]).

Bound with additional trials. Graphic Arts Collection 2017- in process

The Graphic Arts Collection recently acquired this volume of several trial transcripts bound together and extra illustrated with a hand colored etching entitled The Gypsy’s Triumph, a satire on the Elizabeth Canning affair. The print depicts Crisp Gascoyne and Mary Squires (the old gypsy) carried in triumph by four old gypsies with broomsticks and wearing pointed hats.


There are many versions of this curious story. A brief description was posted on The Londonist’s site:

“It’s 1 January 1753, in the City of London. An 18 year old maidservant disappears on the way back to her mother’s house near St Mary Aldermanbury. She wasn’t seen or heard from until nearly a month later, when she reappeared, dirty and bloodied, in ripped clothing. The maidservant was Elizabeth Canning. She claimed to have been kidnapped from near Bedlam Hospital and taken to a house on Hertford Road in Enfield. Here, a woman tried to force her into prostitution. When she refused, she was kept prisoner until she escaped through a window and managed to return home. Her disappearance has been the source of speculation and theories ever since. She identified Enfield woman Mary Wells and Romany woman Mary Squires as her captors. They both went to trial — despite Squires having an alibi, she was sentenced to hanging, while Wells was sentenced to branding on the thumb and six months in prison. Sir Crisp Gascoyne, who was Lord Mayor of London and Chief Magistrate, opened his own inquiry which led to the King granting a pardon. Canning herself was then indicted for perjury, found guilty and sentenced to one month imprisonment, after which she was sent to America. The truth about the case was never revealed.”



See also: Sir Crisp Gascoyne (1700-1761), An address to the liverymen of the city of London: from Sir Crisp Gascoyne … relative to his conduct in the cases of Elizabeth Canning and Mary Squires (London: Printed for James Hodges, 1754). Rare Books (Ex) Oversize HV6248.C15 G3q

“I dare do all that may become a man, Who dares do more is none.”

“Sweet Mercy is Nobility’s true Badge.”


Air Ink

Graviky Labs co-founders Anirudh Sharma and Nikhil Kaushik have come up with an ink made from air pollution, which they call Air Ink. Each 30-milliliter Graviky pen contains 30 to 50 minutes’ worth of air pollution generated by a single car.

“If that [soot] was in the air, it could give you cancer,” says Sharma, co-founder and director of Graviky, who graduated from the Fluid Interfaces Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Media Lab in the United States.

“Taking particles captured by a cylindrical device on a car’s exhaust pipe, Graviky has developed Air Ink, oil-based paints, spray paints, and pens that contain pigments derived from carbon soot. In August, Graviky teamed up with Tiger Beer to provide local Hong Kong artists with 150 liters of Air Ink—from 2,500 hours’ worth of pollution—to create street murals. Their products aren’t currently sold commercially. They hope cities will use Graviky’s devices to revamp public transportation.” –Graviky Labs

Sharma, Kaushik, and two others have been refining their technology for more than a year and recently soft-launched their Air-Ink product as a Kickstarter project with a nearly $10,000 goal. They also hope to make black-ink production more sustainable and environmentally friendly. “We are replacing the consumption of fossil fuels to make carbon black [inks],” they say.

Pledges to kickstarter have far outreached the original goal but it is still possible to order your own bottle of air [pollution] ink.

Loggie di Rafaele nel Vaticano

Giovanni Ottaviani (1735-1808), “Pharaonis filia cum vidisset fiscellam in papyrione Aperiens, cernensque in ea parvulum vagienlem, miserta ejus, ….vocavit nomen ejus Moyses” (Exodus, Chapter 2) [When the Pharaoh’s daughter saw the ark among the reeds, she opened it and seeing an infant inside and having compassion for it, she called him Moses], from Raphael (1483-1520), Seconde Parte delle Logge di Rafaele nel Vaticano che contiene XIII. Volte ed i loro respettivi Quadri (Rome: Stamperia di Marco Pagliarini, 1776). Engraving with gouache hand coloring. Graphic Arts Collection GAX in process

This hand colored print in the Graphic Arts Collection was recently identified as one of the thirteen plates published in the second of the three-part Loggie di Rafaele by Ottaviani, engraved after drawings by Gaetano Savorelli and Pietro Camporesi, after the Vatican decoration by Raphael.

The second section of Ottaviani’s great work concentrates on the quadrants above the windows and doors in the Vatican Logge. Raphael’s decoration took place between 1518 and 1519, while this volume of prints was accomplished more than two hundred years later, between 1774 and 1776.

“The project was carried out by the painter Gaetano Savorelli, the draughtsman Ludovico Teseo, the architect Pietro Camporesi and the engravers Giovanni Ottaviani and Giovanni Volpato. The plates were remarkable not just for their size and magnificent colouring, but also because of the influence they had on contemporary taste. The decision was made to borrow elements from Raphael’s Vatican tapestries and insert them where the original frescoes were in too poor a state to be legible. The finished plates therefore represented an amalgam of design elements presented with a crisp freshness of colour that held enormous appeal and did much to stimulate taste in the neo-classical period.”
Istituto nazionale per la grafica (Italy), Raphael invenit: stampe da Raffaello nelle collezioni dell’Istituto nazionale per la grafica (Roma: Quasar, 1985). Marquand Library (SA) ND623.R2 I77.  Ottaviani 18, 21-33

1917: Anniversary of the Espionage Act

From January 1911 to December 1917, the Socialist monthly, The Masses, published articles, essays, and cartoons commenting on American political conservativism. Its artists included some of the leading American painters and printmakers of the era. “For the Masses, beauty and the revolution were the same thing, or rather parts of the same thing. The Revolution was beautiful and beauty was revolutionary.”–William L. O’Neill

On June 15, 1917, two months after America’s entrance into World War I, the United States Congress passed the Espionage Act. Enforced largely by A. Mitchell Palmer, the United States attorney general under President Woodrow Wilson, “the Espionage Act essentially made it a crime for any person to convey information intended to interfere with the U.S. armed forces prosecution of the war effort or to promote the success of the country’s enemies.”

The following month, the Espionage Act was enforced for the first time when the U.S. Post Office banned The Masses from mailing their August issue citing anti-war cartoons and poems. While many issues contained radical ideas over the years, four plates in the August issue were said to violate the Act specifically:

Art Young’s “War Plans”

Boardman Robinson’s “Making the World Safe for Capitalism”

H.J. Glintenkamp’s “Conscription”

H.J. Glintenkamp’s untitled drawing known as The Liberty Bell.

 The U.S. District Court overturned the ban on July 24, 1917, but the Court of Appeals upheld the government’s ban on November 2, 1917. The final trial in 1918 ended in a hung jury.

Geoffrey R. Stone, an American law professor and noted First Amendment scholar, elaborated on the prosecution of The Masses:

“In the summer of 1917, Postmaster General Burleson ordered the August issue of The Masses to be excluded from the mail, exercising his authority under the Espionage Act of 1917. The Masses sought an injunction to forbid the local postmaster from refusing to accept the August issue for mailing. The postmaster argued that four cartoons and four pieces of text violated the Act, thus justifying the order of exclusion.”

“The postmaster argued that the cartoons and text violated section 3 of the Espionage Act, in that they willfully caused or attempted ‘to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny or refusal of duty in the military or naval forces’ and obstructed ‘the recruiting or enlistment service of the United States.’”

“…Judge Learned Hand conceded the postmaster’s claim that ‘to arouse discontent and disaffection among the people with the prosecution of the war and with the draft tends to promote a mutinous and insubordinate temper among the troops.’ But he argued that to read to word ‘cause’ so ‘broadly would … involve necessarily as a consequence the suppression of all hostile criticism, and of all opinion except what encouraged and supported the existing policies.’”

–Geoffrey R. Stone, “Judge Learned Hand and the Espionage Act of 1917: A Mystery Unraveled,” University of Chicago Law Review 335 (2003).

Echoes of Revolt: The Masses, 1911-1917 (Chicago, Quadrangle Books [1966]). Recap Oversize HX1 .M21q

Caricature of artists from Art Young (1866-1943), On my way: being the book of Art Young in text and picture (New York: H. Liveright, 1928). Graphic Arts Collection (GAX) NE910.U5 Y8 1928

The Masses (New York: Masses Pub. Co., 1911-1917). Recap Oversize HX1 .M2q

Natural History Illustration

The 76 students enrolled in ART 345/HUM 345 “Art and Knowledge in the Nineteenth Century” taught by Dr. Bridget A. Alsdorf and Dr. Rachael Z. DeLue are visiting RBSC this week. Their focus is natural history and natural history illustration from the 16th to 20th century.


On view are:
Conrad Gessner, Historiae animalium (Tiguri: C. Froschoverum, 1551-87), RBSC Oversize QL41.G37f

Mark Catesby, The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands: Containing the Figures of Birds, Beasts, Fishes, Serpents, Insects and Plants, volume 1 (London: Charles Marsh, 1754), RBSC Oversize QH41.C292e

Ernst Haeckel, Kunstformen der Natur (Leipzig und Wien: Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, 1904), RBSC Oversize 2007-0290Q

John James Audubon, The Birds of America: from original drawings by John James Audubon … (London: Pub. by the author, 1827-38). RBSC Oversize EX 8880.134.11; along with an Audubon rifle and one double-elephant printing plate.

The student are viewing animals, both real and imagined, miniature and life-size, through woodcuts, etchings, aquatints, and  lithographs. Don’t miss the gentlemen cooking their dinner inside the creature at the bottom of this post.

A 17th-century journey to the pyramids and elsewhere

Cornelis de Bruyn (1652-1726 or 1727), [Reizen van Cornelis de Bruyn. English] A Voyage to the Levant: or, Travels in the Principal Parts of Asia Minor, the Islands of Scio, Rhodes, Cyprus, &c. With an Account of the Most Considerable Cities of Egypt, Syria and the Holy Land (London: Printed for Jacob Tonson and Thomas Bennet, 1702). First English edition. Rare Books (Ex) 2010-0277Q

Dr. Deborah Vischak’s class FRS 144, Archaeology in Egypt: Reconstructing the Past visited RBSC today to examine several items including this volume by Cornelis de Bruyn. The travelogue follows the Dutch artist’s journeys through the Levant, Persia and the Far East illustrated with 215 engravings spread throughout a narrative text.

De Bruyn left for Rome on November 1, 1674 and after two and a half years in Italy, continued his journey to the Near East. His voyages took him to Turkey, several Greek islands, Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Cyprus.

Returning to Italy, De Bruyn settled this time in Venice where he studied painting with Carl Loth. Finally, on March 19, 1693, De Bruyn arrived back in the Hague and spent the next five years writing his narrative and preparing the engravings to illustrate it. Particularly striking are the multi-sheet panoramas, including Smyrna, Rhodes, the Bosphorus, Tyre, Bethlehem, Jerusalem, Aleppo, Palmyra and others.


De Bruyn and his companions are seen in most of the panoramas on horseback at the far left.

Publicaciones revolucionarias

Publicaciones revolucionarias [Revolutionary publications]. 1. ed. (Bogotá, Colombia: Silueta Ediciones, 2016). Nine volumes. Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2017- in process.


The Graphic Arts Collection recently acquired a set of nine publications from La Silueta, a fine press in Bogotá, Colombia:

No. 1 – Avocados by Santiago Rueda
No. 2 – Labor by Lucas Ospina
No. 3  – Ceiling by Gabriela Pinilla
No. 4 – LMCP by WIlson Diaz
No. 5 – Liberating orgasm by The fulminant
No. 6 – Present! I presented! by Andrés Felipe Uribe
No. 7 – Poscon by Chócolo
No. 8 – 33 Revolutions per minute by Hernán Sansone
No. 9 – The Penitent by Alfredo Greñas

“Hacemos el tipo de libros que nos gustaría que existieran” /
“We make the kind of books that we want to exist,” write their editors.

“We are an independent publisher who works to publish the books we would like to see in bookstores, to buy and read. We edit authors who represent, in one way or another, a fresh and novel proposal; whose drawings, texts, and stories help open the minds of those who acquire them and become tools that help them take creative directions different from traditional ones.

Our titles, their designs, and the themes appeal to that playful side that we all still have alive inside us. A color, a source, an illustration, or a specific function can reactivate in such a way that the experience of having them in the hands always goes to Be gratifying and pleasurable.

Our books are designed to be explored both physically and in terms of content because in La Silueta we are convinced that both form and substance are important. We believe that there are contents that must exist and that they must be presented in such a way that they are striking to the senses because, in the end, everything enters through them.”

La Silueta editors Andrés Fresneda and Juan Pablo Fajardo with printing press.

Graphic Illustrations of the Miseries of Human Life


One of the rarest items of British caricature can only be found with a visit to the New York Public Library’s outstanding Arents collection (under the book division, not prints). Although many collections, including Princeton’s, hold various prints around the popular book Miseries of Human Life drawn by Rowlandson, Gillray, Cruikshank and other lesser known artists, only NYPL holds the entire set of prints and wrappers for the series commissioned by Thomas Tegg from the artist George Woodward.

Isaac Cruikshank transferred Woodward’s drawings to copper plates and printed them on a biweekly schedule until the entire set was published. Dull blue paper wrapper open to a surprisingly bright and complex title page, finally explaining a project that has never been fully described in collections worldwide.


Queen Gertrude: “One woe doth tread upon another’s heel, So fast they follow; your sister’s drown’d, Laertes.” —The Tragedy of Hamlet by William Shakespeare

cruikshank-miseries11“Then hey! for the groan and the sigh. / ‘Tis fine frisk and fun to be grieving. / And since we must all of us die. / Let us take no enjoyment while living.” –Charles Dibdin “Sound Argument” from The Wags, 1791.




Isaac Cruikshank (1756?-1811?) after designs by George Moutard Woodward (1760-1809), Graphic Illustrations of The Miseries of Human Life: Partly Taken from the Popular Work of that Title [by James Beresford (1764-1840] (London: T. Tegg, 1807). 3 parts ([6] leaves): all illustrations; 28 x 43 cm. Each part (no.) in the original slate blue paper covers, as issued biweekly. Publisher’s advertisements on p. [4] of covers of parts. Engraved t.p. in pt. 1, dated Feb. 2, 1807. “To be published regularly every fortnight … until completed”–Covers of parts.

cruikshank-miseries7Thanks to the NYPL staff for their help.

Sound Argument by Charles Dibdin

We bipeds, made up of frail clay,
Alas! are but children of sorrow;
And though brisk and merry to-day,
We all may be wreathed to-morrow, —
For sunshine’s succeeded by rain:
Then, fearful of life’s stormy weather,
lest pleasure should only bring pain,
Let us all be unhappy together.

I grant, the best blessing we know
Is a friend—for true friendship’s a treasure;
And yet, lest your friend prove a foe,
Oh taste not the dangerous pleasure:
Thus friendship’s a flimsy affair;
Thus riches and health are a bubble;
Thus there’s nothing delightful but care,
Nor anything pleasing but trouble.

If a mortal would point out that life
Which on earth would be nearest to heaven,
Let him, thanking his stars, choose a wife
To whom truth and honour are given:
But honour and truth are so rare,
And horns, when they’re cutting, so tingle,
That, with all my respect for the fair,
I’d advise him to sigh and live single.

It appears, from these premises, plain
That wisdom is nothing but folly,
That pleasure’s a term that means pain,
And that joy is your true melancholy;
That all those who laugh ought to err,
That ’tis fine frisk and fun to be grieving,
And that since we must all of us die,
We should take no enjoyment while living.

Add your own immigration story to “The British Library”

“The British Library,” a re-installation of an exhibition created by the British/Nigerian artist Yinka Shonibare MBE, is now on view at the James Cohan Gallery in New York City. Its web component, accessible in the gallery and online, allows visitors to explore the complete list of names on the show’s 10,000 books and several video documentaries about immigration. There is also a page where we are asked to record our own immigration stories.

Shonibare designed the work as a celebration of diversity. Originally commissioned in 2014, Cohan’s gallery has been transformed into a place of discovery and debate, featuring an installation of thousands of books “covered in the artist’s signature batik Dutch wax printed cotton textile. On the spines of many of these books are printed the names of notable first and second generation immigrants and incoming migrants to Britain who have moved here throughout history.”

The names include Winston Churchill, Prince Philip, Dame Helen Mirren, and many others. “These immigrants and incoming migrants have all made a significant contribution to aspects of British life and culture, from science to music, art, cinema and literature. Other books feature names of prominent figures who have opposed immigration at various times. Online, the videos investigate the immigration debate from pro-immigration, anti-immigration, and neutral viewpoints.”

The show’s website notes: “Examples of the reasons for immigration can vary from global conflicts to economic factors. Whilst the project is a celebration of the ongoing contributions made to British society by people who have arrived there from other parts of the world or whose ancestors came to Britain as immigrants, it does not exclude the points of view of those who object to it.”

For more information, see

More about book jackets:
George Thomas Tanselle, Book-Jackets: their History, Forms, and Use (Charlottesville: Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 2011). Graphic Arts Collection (GA) 2012-0040N

Kurt Weidemann, [Buchumschläge und Schallplattenhüllen] Book Jackets and Record Covers (New York, Praeger [1969]). Graphic Arts Collection (GA) 2014-0581Q

Charles Rosner, The Art of the Book-Jacket (London: Published for the Victoria and Albert Museum by H.M.S.O., 1949). Graphic Arts Collection (GA) 2009-0369N

One of the finest Venetian illustrated books of the Settecento

Giovanni Marco Pitteri (1703-1786) and Francesco Bartolozzi (1727-1815), after Giovanni Battista Piazzetta (1682-1754), Studi di pittura già dissegnati da Giambatista Piazzetta ed ora con l’intaglio di Marco Pitteri [Painting Studies Drawn by Giambattista Piazzetta and Now Together with Marco Pitteri’s Engravings] (Venice: [Giambattista Albrizzi], 1760). 28 pp. text and 48 engravings after 24 drawings. Includes Alcuni avvertimenti per lo incamminamento di un Giovani alla pittura di Gian Pietro Cavazzoni Zannotti (Giampietro Zannotti, 1674-1765). Graphic Arts Collection 2017- in process

In 1750, the celebrated painter and draftsman Giovanni Battista Piazzetta was appointed director of the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice but at the same time, came under increasing financial difficulties. His good friend, leading Venetian publisher Giambattista Battista Albrizzi commissioned a series of instructional life drawings for aspiring artists.

Piazzetta died in 1754 and over the next six years, Francesco Bartolozzi and Marco Pitteri each engraved their own representations of his drawings, which Albrizzi published both sets in 1760 as a manual for painting students; 48 engraved plates after 24 drawings. Bartolozzi emphasizing the line and Pitteri the light and shadow.

Piazzetta, Male Nude in a Landscape. Black chalk on paper. Morgan Museum and Library, Gift of the Samuel H. Kress Foundation. 1961.12:53

This rare volume of virtuoso talent also includes the only surviving etched self-portrait of Piazzetta dated 1738 and a biography of the artist written by Albrizzi. The Graphic Arts Collection is honored to now hold one of the only complete first editions reproducing Piazzetta’s master drawings. Half a generation older than Giambattista Tiepolo, Piazzetta exercised a profound influence on the work of the younger artist, which continues into the 21st century.

Print historian Suzanne Boorsch wrote, “Giambattista Albrizzi’s final tribute to Piazzetta is the Studj di pittura, a sort of model book reproducing twenty-four drawings of nude figures by Piazzetta. During much of his life Piazzetta directed an art school, and Albrizzi’s aim was to put into a more lasting form Piazzetta’s role as teacher. The book, not published until six years after Piazzetta’s death, includes two plates reproducing each drawing, one by Francesco Bartolozzi, which is quite conventional, with outlines and cross-hatching, and the other in Pitteri’s singular, arresting manner.” –Venetian Prints and Books in the Age of Tiepolo (1997). Marquand (SA) NE2052.4.V46 B66 1997