Category Archives: photographs

photographs

A Daguerreotype Portrait of Lucretia Mott

After Samuel Broadbent, Lucretia Mott, circa 1849. Quarter plate daguerreotype. Purchased thanks to funds from the Manuscript Collection and the Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2021- in process

An abolitionist, Quaker, and fierce advocate for women’s rights, Lucretia (Lucy) Coffin Mott (1793-1880) believed that women and men should be treated equally and spent her adult life fighting for these causes. In 1833 she was among the women who established the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society and served as a delegate to the 1840 World Anti-Slavery Convention in London. Although she was a powerful speaker, Mott was surprised to find she was not allowed to participate. Together with Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others, they organized the First Woman’s Rights Convention in 1848. Her address Discourse on Woman was delivered at the assembly buildings in Philadelphia on December 17, 1849 and published by T.B. Peterson in 1850 (Miriam Y. Holden Collection HQ1423 .M9). These are only a few of her many accomplishments, which continued until her death in 1880.

Notice the glare on the left side of this portrait. This might indicate that the daguerreotype now at Princeton is a copy daguerreotype, the shine a result of the reflective copperplate being rephotographed. If this is true, it tells us a great deal about the celebrity and admiration for Mott at the time, as well as the collecting habits that warranted additional portraits. See a few of her many portraits below.

We teach the daguerreotype as a ‘one-of-a-kind’ but there may have been an active business for daguerreotype reproductions. While the earlier daguerreotype with this image has not been located yet, we will list the portrait as ‘after Samuel Broadbent.’ The case has not been opened at Princeton (it just arrived) but the dealer notes “The hallmark, a hexamerous figure 40 was usually seen in the mid-to-late 1840s; also use of wax on the reverse copper side of the plate, as seen here, was generally ended by the advent of the 1850s. The edges of the original double elliptical mat that was used to frame the portrait can be seen on the naked plate.”

Samuel Broadbent (1810-1880), Lucretia Mott, ca. 1855. Quarter plate daguerreotype. Gift of Hallmark Cards, Inc. Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art

Even without this mark, Samuel Broadbent Jr. (1810-1880/01) is a good guess given his other portraits and similar painted backdrops. A different daguerreotype portrait of Mott was made by Broadbent around 1855 [above] and a CDV published by Broadbent and Phillips (Henry C. Phillips) around 1865. Sarah Weatherwax has given us a record of his studios:

Working primarily as a portrait photographer for almost four decades, Broadbent entered into a number of different partnerships, including with female daguerreotypist Sally [Sarah] Garrett Hewes, Henry C. Phillips, William Curtis Taylor, and fellow painter Frederick A. Wenderoth. He worked in a variety of photographic mediums and produced images utilizing a number of different processes. His daguerreotypes frequently employed a painted landscape background or centered the sitter within a window frame adorned with large leafy vines along one side. In addition to daguerreotypes, the Broadbent studio also produced ambrotypes and tintypes and successfully made the transition to paper photography. After Samuel Broadbent’s death in 1880, two of his sons continued his photography business until 1905. A Broadbent photography studio remained in Philadelphia until 1920.”–Sarah J. Weatherwax, Curator of Prints and Photographs, The Library Company of Philadelphia, 2013.

William Henry Furness (1802-1896), Lucretia Mott, 1858. Oil on canvas. Swarthmore College Friends Historical Library

Reproduction of a daguerreotype portrait of Lucretia and James Mott sitting together, original photograph by William Langenheim, 1842. Location of original unknown.

Marcus Aurelius Root, Lucretia Coffin Mott, 1851. Half-plate daguerreotype. National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution.

 

Trinidad and Tobago

The Graphic Arts Collection is fortunate to have acquired an album of 96 albumen and gelatin silver photographs of Trinidad and Tobago from the last years of the 19th century. Images include government buildings, botanic gardens, groups of officials and staff, parades, a memorials addressed to Queen Victoria, and much more. There is a cocoa harvest and a fair highlighting the year’s produce. In addition, are several pen and ink drawings.

The black half morocco binding is stamped “Trinidad” on upper cover, and ‘H.E.H.J.’ on lower cover, which refers to the owner Sir Hubert Edward Henry Jerningham, KCMG, DL (1842-1914), Governor of Trinidad and Tobago between 1897 and 1900.

By 1830, Trinidad and Tobago was the world’s third highest producer of cocoa, after Venezuela and Ecuador, producing 20% of the world’s cocoa. This was before Ghana began its large-scale cultivation of cacao. The cocoa industry eventually dominated the local economy between 1866 and 1920 during which time the world demand for cocoa products increased, and cocoa prices remained stable at an appreciable level.

Subsequent to 1921, when local cocoa production peaked at 75 million lbs (34,000 tons), a combination of events led to the gradual decrease in production. World cocoa prices declined due to a glut on the market resulting from over-production, particularly in West Africa, then came the onset of the Great Depression of the 1920’s, the appearance of Witches’ Broom disease (WB) in Trinidad and Tobago in 1928, the increase in world sugar prices, and the development of the local oil industry, which competed for agricultural labour. –Frances L. Bekele, “The History of Cocoa Production in Trinidad and Tobago,” The Cocoa Research Unit, The University of The West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad & Tobago, September 20, 2003.

British rule
1797 – A British naval expedition captures Trinidad from Spain.
1802 – Spain cedes Trinidad to Britain under the Treaty of Amiens.
1814 – France cedes Tobago to Britain.
1834 – Slavery abolished; indentured workers brought in from India to work on sugar plantations.
1889 – Trinidad and Tobago administratively combined as a single British colony.
1945 – Universal suffrage instituted.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Female Equitation

Mrs. Stirling Clarke, The Ladies’ Equestrian Guide, or, The Habit & the Horse: a treatise on female equitation, with illustrations lithographed by Messrs. Day & Son, from photographs by Herbert Watkins (London: Day & Son, [1857]). 9 plates, tinted lithographics by Day & Son after photographs by Herbert Watkins (1828-1916). Graphic Arts Off-Site Storage 2021- in process.

Nannie Lambert Power O’Donoghue (1843-1940) and A. Chantrey Corbould (1852-1920), Riding for Ladies, with Hints on the Stable (London: William Clowes & Sons for W. Thacker & Co., Calcutta, Thacker, Spink, & Co., and Bombay, Thacker & Co., 1887). Woodburytype frontispiece. Graphic Arts Off-Site Storage 2021- in process

 

The Graphic Arts Collection is fortunate to have acquired two works by female authors concerning horsemanship for upper class women in the 19th century. It is unfortunate that the earliest by a Mrs. Clarke cannot be identified with her own name but only by her husband’s. Written in 1857, Clarke’s book comes a full twenty year before that of Nannie Power O’Donoghue’s work. It is a thorough discussion of horsemanship including notes on stabling, training, shoeing, and doctoring, by and for women.

Mrs. Stirling is a mystery beyond her marriage, she even leaves her name off the title page, preface, or introduction. Her preface begins by assuring any man reading the book that he need not worry. She has no desire to “trench upon ground hitherto trodden by the more privileged sex” nor does she offer “any suggestion for their enlightenment.” So, if you are of the male sex, shut your computer and stop reading.

Stirling continues, “I write exclusively for the guidance of my own sex, well knowing the vast importance to the fair novice of a manual which brings her acquainted with that equal pride of prince and peasant—the horse—and with the fascinating and elegant science which teaches how to guide and govern him, and how to guide and govern herself with respect to this noble creature.” Riding well needs training, as Stirling quotes, “True knowledge comes from study, not by chance, As those move easiest who have learned to dance.”

 

 

Riding was in the mid-nineteenth century a regular activity among women, as she comments: “Some years ago, riding was by no means general amongst the fair sex; then ladies on horseback were the exception and not, as now, the rule, but “grace à notre charmante Reine,”

“Whose high zeal for healthy duties
Set on horseback half our beauties,”

there is now scarcely a young lady of rank, fashion, or respectability, but includes riding in the list of her accomplishments; and who, whether attaining her end or not, is not ambitious of being considered by her friends and relatives, “a splendid horsewoman.’ Yet how few can really claim this envied appellation! Habit may do much, and, coupled with science, a great deal more; but good riding, with very few exceptions, is neither a habit nor an instinct. Dancing we all know to be an instinctive motion, a natural expression of joy ; but mark the dancing of the rustic milkmaid, and that of the educated and accomplished lady; the one is an untutored, clumsy bound, the other the very poetry of motion ; and the latter should riding be.”

 

The second acquisition by a woman for women is Nannie Lambert Power O’Donoghue‘s Riding for Ladies [top] with illustrations by A. Chantrey Corbould (1852-1920). Perhaps it was her athleticism that allowed Power O’Donoghue, also known as Ann Stewart Lyster Lambert, to live to be 97 years old. While she wrote many books, she was best known for Ladies on Horseback, followed a few years later by Riding for Ladies (1887).

Originally published in a series of articles in the Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News and Lady’s Pictorial, Riding for Ladies brought her writing together in a book so popular it is recorded as selling “more than 94,000 copies.” Unlike Stirling, her name is proudly announced on the title page and the book is filled with her many achievements and personal stories.

 

 

 

Skizzen aus dem Süden

In 1893, Puggy Rothschild and his friend Twickel* boarded a yacht dubbed the Aurora for a voyage to Livorno, Corsica, Algiers, Barcelona, and other ports. The following year they sailed in the Thalia to Dalmatia, Corfu, Greece, and Turkey. An amateur photographer, Rothschild collected his negatives from each trip and had the best ones printed into heliogravures by Josef Löwy and the others reproduced as collotypes. Together with his notes and descriptions, these were privately printed for 160 close friends in enormous elephant folios, lavishly designed and bound. Thanks to our friends with the Program in Hellenic Studies, Rothschild’s two volume set is now available in the Graphic Arts Collection.

* Nathaniel Meyer Anselm von Rothschild (1836-1905) and August Joseph Freiherr von Twickel (1832-1906)

Nathaniel Rothschild was not a driven businessman like his father, Viennese banker Anselm Salomon Freiherr von Rothschild. Sailing the Mediterranean was more his style along with gardening, collected art, and enjoyed his privileged life. More about him and his family can be found in the Rothschild’s archive site, https://forum.rothschildarchive.org/welcome. “Nathaniel’s interests were much wider than banking. His botanical gardens, the Hohe Warte, were available for enjoyment by the public, and he also built for his own use a town house on the Theresianumgasse in Vienna. …He founded a general hospital, institutes for the blind and deaf, an orphanage and a neurological clinic.” Nathaniel also endowed the Viennese Camera Club and later trips were made on the Veglia, a yacht equipped with a darkroom.

Here are a few of the plates:

 

Nathaniel Meyer Anselm von Rothschild (1836-1905), Skizzen aus dem Süden [=Sketches from the South] (Wien: [Printed by] Friedrich Jasper, 1894: vol. 1-1895 vol. 2). Elephant folio. 74 full-page heliogravures and 100 in text colloypes. Edition: 160. Acquired with matching funds provided by the Program in Hellenic Studies with the support of the Stanley J. Seeger Hellenic Fund. Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2021- in process.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Bontoc Igorot, Kalinga, and Ifugao people

Verso text: “Two Igorrots with Gongs. The Gongs are used on which to bat time for their dances. Note that the handles are human jawbones from the heads of enemies taken in battle. The upper portion of the skull is given a place of honor in the home of the captor.” Two Igorrots with gongs
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10636333
Identifier:, ark:/88435/zg64tv292
Call Number: GA 2011.00241

Igorrot man. Bontoc Province, Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier: 10636335
Identifier: ark:/88435/dr26z574x
Call Number: GA 2011.00230

Bagobo man, taken near Davao, Mindinao
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10643034
Identifier:, ark:/88435/m900p278r
Call Number: GA 2011.00222

 
Early in the twentieth century, historians, anthropologists, and businessmen traveled to the Philippines to both study and bring elements of that culture to the United States, resulting in a massive exhibit at the 1904 St. Louis Fair. “Several anthropologists had gone to the Philippines to study the tribes people of the Cordillera region Northern Luzon. In 1903, the National Geographic did a spread on the people of the region. Anthropologist Albert Jenks conducted fieldwork in 1902, and his ethnographic information was used in the brochures describing the tribes people at expositions in the U.S. Jenks, who worked for the U.S. government, brought over people from the region to the Fair, some of whom lived with him and his wife.” — https://www.foundsf.org/index.php?title=Igorots_Arrive_in_San_Francisco_in_1905

The Graphic Arts Collection holds 30 mammoth photographs, recently digitized, taken by an unidentified expedition to the Philippines. The text pasted on the backing board is often racist and pejorative, only some of which is quoted here. Although none are dated, the prints are presumed to be from the early 20th century, after the 1904 fair: “Bagobo Man. Showing how teeth are filed. The Bagobos live on the Gulf of Davao in Mindinao and are noted as the tribe who offer human sacrifices. In 1909 twenty of these people were sentenced by Judge Springer of the Court of first Instance for having taken part in a human sacrifice in the hills near Sta Cruz Davao. They offered a sacrifice of an 8 year old boy to Mandarangan the god of evil as their crops had been bad. Had their crops been good they would have offered a sacrifice to Dawata the god of good. In any case they must appease the wrath of the gods. This tribe make very showy clothing of beads and hemp cloth and are probably the most picturesque tribe in the Islands.”

Blunt opinions are made about the people photographed: “They are of a low order of intellegence [sic], live in filthy huts and eke out an existence by abortive attempts at agriculture.” An emphasis is placed on the use of skulls in decoration, and on the local diets that include dog meat.

“A Young Igorrot. Taken at Bontoc, Island of Luzon. The Non-Christian tribes of the central part of Luzon number about 500,000 souls of whom the Igorrots are the most numerous. They are great agriculturists but their favorite dish is Dog. Any kind of dog – but dogs with a white skin and hair preferred. They are head hunters and when a successful war party returns there is great rejoicing. The gory trophies are stuck up in front of the home of their captor and there ensues a great feast with much drinking. They believe that the spirit of a person can make trouble for those who killed him but that such a spirit profits by the food and drink consumed by the living at the feast in honor of their killing. A man or boy who has taken a head finds it easy to get an acceptable wife and the influence of the women is one of the potent factors which renders difficult the supression [sic] of head hunting amongst these people.”

 
It is hoped that by digitizing these images, work can be done to improve the study and description so poorly written 100 years ago.

Verso text: “Ifugao Igorrot House Ornamented with Human Heads and the Man Who Took Them. Taken at Quingan, Nueva Viscaya, Island of Luzon. He makes no distinction between the heads of animals captured in the chase or those of his enemies. All are ornaments of which he is extremely proud. The horns are those of the Water Buffalo (Carabao).”Ifugo Igorrot house ornamented with human heads and the man who took them. Taken at Quingan, Nueva Viscay, Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10646377
Identifier:, ark:/88435/37720n08r
Call Number: GA 2011.00228

Verso text: “Ifugao Igorrots. Just married and showing their wedding dress.” Ifugao Ingorrots. Just married and showing their wedding dress
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10643036
Identifier:, ark:/88435/5712mf89s
Call Number: GA 2011.00227

 

Verso text: “An Ingolot Dance. Province of Nueva Viscaya, Philippine Islands. These people are very similar to the Igorrotes and are also Dog eaters and head hunters. They will continue a dance for hours at a time going through a series of weird motions intended to typify their valor in battle etc.”
An Ingolot dance. Province of Nueva Viscaya, Philippine Islands
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10654194
Identifier:, ark:/88435/70795g99j
Call Number: GA 2011.00220

 

Verso text: “Subano Man. The Subanos inhabit the hills in the interior of the Island of Mindinao and are not as warlike as the Moros who inhabit the coast.” Subano man
Source Metadata Identifier: 10654192
Identifier: ark:/88435/rx913z24z
Call Number: GA 2011.00238

 

Additional records and links:

Tinguian man
Source Metadata Identifier: 10667665
Identifier: ark:/88435/xp68kq56f
Call Number GA 2011.00239

Another Mangayan home. Island of Mindoro – constructed of Bamboo and Nipa
Source Metadata Identifier: 10667664
Identifier: ark:/88435/6682xc32w
Call Number: GA 2011.00221

Bagobo man. Showing how teeth are filled
Source Metadata Identifier: 10667663
Identifier: ark:/88435/q524jx12m
Call Number: GA 2011.00223

Tinguian man playing a flute with his nose
Source Metadata Identifier: 10664307
Identifier: ark:/88435/n8710017n
Call Number: GA 2011.00240

Mangayan home. Baco River, Island of Mindoro
Source Metadata Identifier: 10664306
Identifier: ark:/88435/9z9037223
Call Number: GA 2011.00235

Ifugao Igorrot smoking
Source Metadata Identifier: 10660933
Identifier: ark:/88435/8049gd42t
Call Number: GA 2011.00226

Ingorrot woman taken at Bontoc Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier: 10664305
Identifier: ark:/88435/hh63t426q
Call Number: GA 2011.00234

Heads of enemies placed in a position of honor
Source Metadata Identifier: 10660932
Identifier: ark:/88435/2f75rh39q
Call Number: GA 2011.00225

Ingorrot woman showing ornamental stretching of the ear lobe and taken in Bontoc Province, Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier: 10660931
Identifier: ark:/88435/gh93h6870
Call Number: GA 2011.00233

Igorrot girls house (for unmarried girls).
Source Metadata Identifier: 10654193
Identifier: ark:/88435/kd17d221d
Call Number: GA 2011.00229

Bontoc Igorrot man and two women wearing banana leaf clothing
Source Metadata Identifier: 10657568
Identifier: ark:/88435/9019s983k
Call Number: GA 2011.00224

A young Igorrot. Taken at Bontoc, Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier: 10657569
Identifier: ark:/88435/sx61dv647
Call Number: GA 2011.00218

Young Mangayan woman, taken on Baco River, Island of Mindoro
Source Metadata Identifier: 10657567
Identifier: ark:/88435/p55480738
Call Number: GA 2011.00242

A typical Moro house at Jolo
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10649712
Identifier:, ark:/88435/br86bb92g
Call Number: GA 2011.00217

Ingolot man, Province of Nueva Viscaya, Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10649711
Identifier:, ark:/88435/jh344164c
Call Number:GA 2011.00232Top of Form

A group of Ifugao Igorrots fighting for a piece of meat which was thrown away by a camping party as unfit for human consumption. Taken at Magok, Ifugao, Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10649713
Identifier:, ark:/88435/1g05fk95r
Call Number: GA 2011.00213

A Negrito home, Cagayan Province, Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10646378
Identifier:, ark:/88435/47429j481
Call Number: GA 2011.00215

Negrito women with their children. Province of Zambales
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10636334
Identifier:, ark:/88435/cr56n836m
Call Number: GA 2011.00236

Negrito women with their children. Province of Zambales
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10636334
Identifier:, ark:/88435/cr56n836m
Call Number: GA 2011.00236

Ifugo Igorrot house ornamented with human heads and the man who took them. Taken at Quingan, Nueva Viscay, Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10646377
Identifier:, ark:/88435/37720n08r
Call Number: GA 2011.00228

Ingolot man. Province of Nueva Viscaya, Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10639681
Identifier:, ark:/88435/0g354p56z
Call Number: GA 2011.00231

An Igorrot and his family. Trinidad, Benguet
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10643035
Identifier:, ark:/88435/vq27zw778
Call Number: GA 2011.00219

A Kalinga chief from Balantok, mountain province
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10639683
Identifier:, ark:/88435/r207tx693
Call Number: GA 2011.00214

A Negrito woman and child. Taken at Casablanca, Island of Luzon
Source Metadata Identifier:, 10639682
Identifier:, ark:/88435/wp988t15p
Call Number: GA 2011.00216

The Belle of Atlantic Avenue, 1918

The Kaplan Klan, 1907 from:

Photograph album identified as “The Kaplan Klan,” New York: [1907]–1943. 262 gelatin silver prints. Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2020- in process

Photography album labels front and back

The scout attending camp above might be Howard E. Kaplan (born 1929) son of Jack Kaplan (born 1897), in Brooklyn, New York, related to Belle Kaplan on Henry Street, but the benefit of the album is not specific to one person or family. It presents a look into Jewish American family life in the 1930s and 1940s Brooklyn. The ‘Kaplan Klan’ lived together, worked together (at the Atlas Portland Cement company), and vacation together. Extensive handwritten captions are by a male family member and include a smattering of Yiddish.

 


“By the middle of the 1920s, Scouting was growing at a tremendous pace. There were, at that time, living in the great city of New York men who were dreaming of vast unspoiled woodland acres as a solution to a problem which weighed heavily on their minds and hearts. This group was the Boy Scout Foundation of Greater New York, which was headed by a man of great foresight as well as an abundance of Boy Scout training. His name was Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who, in 1929, became Governor of New York State and eventually guided the destiny of the United States as President throughout the Depression era and World War II.”–Ten Mile River Scout Museum

In August 1935, the family takes a sunny vacation to Sunrise Lake at Lewis Morris Park is just outside Morristown, NJ. The caption reads: “The 8 Living Spinsters of Bungalow 15, startled beyond words at the sight of a man (yes – me) Look at them stretching their necks for the pleasure of one good look at a man…”

 

 

Mountaindale, NY, was one of many small towns in the Catskills that hosted summer camps where the entire family spent a month or two each year.

“At the turn of the 19th century the celebrated Jewish resort area started in the Sullivan and Ulster County Catskills. New Yorkers hungry for mountain air, good food and the American way of leisure came to the mountains by the thousands, and by the 1950s a half-million people each year inhabited the “summer world” of bungalow colonies, summer camps and small hotels. These institutions shaped American Jewish culture, enabling Jews to become more American while at the same time introducing the American public to immigrant Jewish culture. Home-grown Borscht Belt entertainment provided America with a rich supply of comedians, musicians and performers.

Legions of young men and women used the Catskills as a springboard to successful careers and marriages. The hotels and summer camps of the area provided jobs to thousands of college students who relied on their wages and tips to finance the education that would catapult them (or so they hoped) into the higher reaches of American society. We suspect that Richard Feynman, the Princeton physicist, was not the only Nobel Prize winner to bus tables in the Catskills.–https://www.brown.edu/Research/Catskills_Institute/hotelsbungalows.shtml

“From the only poet to a shining whore,” Samuel Beckett for Henry Crowder to sing.

Photomontage by Man Ray (1890-1976)

Two complementary volumes were recently acquired by the Graphic Arts Collection, greatly enhancing the fine press holding of Nancy Cunard’s Hours Press and more generally, expanding material on Harlem Renaissance expatriates living in Paris during the 1930s:

Henry Crowder (1890-1955), Henry-Music. Poems by Nancy Cunard, Richard Aldington, Walter Lowenfels, Samuel Beckett, and Harold Acton. Music by Henry Crowder (Paris: Hours Press, 1930). Edition: 100. Cover photomontage by Man Ray. Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2020- in process. Acquired thanks to funds provided by the Friends of the Princeton University Library.

Anthony Barnett, Listening for Henry Crowder: A Monograph on His Almost Lost Music with the Poems and Music of Henry-Music (Lewes, East Sussex, England: Allardyce Barnett Publishers, 2007). “This 128 page monograph with previously undocumented materials includes an essay, roll/discography, some 90 photos, documents, music, CD insert with rolls and recordings including the Crowder-Cunard composition Memory Blues aka Bouf sur le toit and new recordings by New York vocalist Allan Harris of six compositions by Crowder including his collaboration with Samuel Beckett.” Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2020- in process

Here is a brief snippet of music by Henry Crowder from Listening for Henry Crowder:

Born in Georgia, the Black jazz pianist Henry Crowder (1890-1955) first met the White shipping heiress Nancy Cunard (1896-1965) in Venice while performing at the Hotel Luna. They fell in love and moved to Cunard’s home outside Paris. Together they converted an old farmhouse in Reanville into a fine press printing studio, called Hours Press, where they set type, designed and printed small editions, and published the work of Ezra Pound, Richard Aldington, Norman Douglas, Laura Riding, and others. The young Samuel Beckett won a poetry contest sponsored by the press and became a valued friend.

 

In Cunard’s book These Were the Hours: Memories of My Hours Press, Reanville and Paris, 1928-1931, she writes about their 1930 publication Henry-Music. Richard Aldington, Harold Acton, Walter Lowenfels, and Beckett each gave Crowder poems to be set to music during an August vacation in the village of Creysse. “Nearly everything was written here in the course of four weeks, so that we went back to Paris with the Opus almost finished. … To do the covers Man Ray’s name came to me at once, for he had not only a strong appreciation for African art but for Henry as well. I had known Man Ray and had admired his work for several years.” Crowder later wrote an account of his years spent with Cunard, published posthumously, with almost no mention of this publication.

Princeton’s copy of Henry-Music includes a lengthy inscription from Crowder to Mr. & Mrs. Otto Theis: “Dear friends, if this little effort of mine brings you one moment of pleasure, I assure that I am amply repaid for whatever effort went into the making of it. You two people are realy [sic] nearer to my heart than you may suspect. Probably I am presuming when I say that, but nevertheless the Gods themselves (whoever they are) don’t always know who loves them.”

See also: Henry Crowder, As Wonderful as All That?: Henry Crowder’s Memoir of His Affair with Nancy Cunard, 1928-1935 (Navarro, CA: Wild Tree Press, 1987).

Nancy Cunard, These Were the Hours (Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1969).

Below is the poem twenty-four years old Samuel Beckett gave Henry Crowder for Henry Music, and above is a snippet of vocalist Allan Harris’s recording. The complete recording is available on our CD included in Listening for Henry Crowder. **It begins very quietly**

From the Only Poet To a Shining Whore
for Henry Crowder to Sing

Rahab of the Holy Battlements,
bright dripping shaft
in the bright bright patient
pearl-brow dawn-dusk lover of the sun.

Puttanina mia!
You hid them happy in the high flax,
pale before the fords
of Jordan, and the dry red waters,
and you lowered a pledge
of scarlet hemp.

Oh radiant, oh angry, oh Beatrice,
she foul with the victory
of the bloodless fingers
and proud, and you, Beatrice, mother, sister, daughter, beloved,
fierce pale flame
of doubt, and God’s sorrow,
and my sorrow.

George Boileau Willock cartoons

The Graphic Arts Collection recently added an album of 259 original cartoons, watercolors, and pen-&-ink sketches on 170 pp., along with a few printed cartoons, including one “sent to Punch January 1868.”

 

George Boileau Willock (born 1832), Gore Wynyard Willock (1861-1910), et al., Scraps by Many Hands, [ca. 1855-1885]. Embossed cover “G.B.W.”

Some work has already been done on the albums provenance, which is repeated here:
A collection of original art work by G.B.W. (George Boileau Willock, born 1832) and his artistic friends. The album was passed to his son, G.W.W. (Gore Wynyard Willock, 1861-1910). George came from an Imperial family that included Alexander Willock, London merchant and slave owner in the West Indies, his son Francis (1785-1834), naval officer and brother of Sir Henry Willock (1790-1858) chairman of the East India Company, and Captain Frank Gore Willock (1829-1857) who died at Delhi.

The son of Sir Henry Willock and Elizabeth Davis, George married Georgina C.M Willoughby in 1857 and together they had three children, Beatrice, Gore and Frank. Gore was born at Mussoorie, (a hill station pictured in the album) in the Indian state of Uttarakhand, north of New Delhi, and served in the Indian army before retiring to London. The Boileau connection was through Mary Elizabeth Boileau (1838-1919), who married Henry Davis Willock in 1859.

It is assumed that Gore compiled his father’s drawings into this album, including 124 cartoons signed G.B.W. or G.B. Willock; and about 80 others unsigned but probably by Willock. George was clearly an accomplished artist but many of the drawings present racist views of Asian, African, and Indian people, both in the image and the text. They are not included here. A portrait [at the top] presumed to be George Willock is included with a photograph of his face pasted to a sketch of a man on horseback

 

There are 20 non-humorous watercolors or pen-&-ink drawings of landscapes in England, Scotland, and India.. Eighteen cartoons are signed with the initials of other artists: 8 by C.A.R., 4 by J.L., 2 each by H.M.J. and W.T., one each by W.F.L. and M.E.
The two printed items laid into the album are:
Legend of Broadstairs. For Private Circulation only (Broadstairs: Printed by E. Cantwell, ca. 1875). Signed G.B.W. at end. Inscribed to “Gore from the Author,” [ca.1875].
A True Tale told by Mariah Hanne to Sarah Jane. 3pp. on a single folded sheet [ca.1880], inscribed to “Gore from the Author.”

 

 

Picturing Chess

Given the success of The Queen’s Gambit by Walter Tevis (New York: Random House, 1983) [HathiTrust Emergency Temporary Access ReCAP PS3570.E95 Q4 1983] and the Netflix series, we thought it might be interesting to see what chess games were in our collection, played by all genders. Princeton owns one of the earliest calotypes of two men playing chess, attributed to the unknown British amateur named Brodie and undated [above: Richard Willats ark:/88435/k930bx11x, Treasures of the Graphic Arts Collection]. This rivals the calotype attributed to Antoine Claudet showing two men playing chess around 1845. https://talbot.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/2018/09/07/claudets-talbotype-or-calotype-portraits/

On the left is the death mask for the French chess master Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais (1795–1840, box 25), who Wikipedia calls “possibly the strongest player in the early 19th century.” Unfortunately there is no picture of him actually playing.

Princeton University Library’s Eugene Beauharnais Cook chess collection https://library.princeton.edu/special-collections/topics/chess, includes over 2000 volumes, separately arranged, classed and catalogued. The complete list of the collection is published in Princeton University Library Classified List VI (1920) pp. 3585-3608 [(ExB) 0639.7373.5 vol. 6]. [full text] .

Within the Cook collection is a portfolio holding nineteen prints and photographs (Cook Oversize GV1447 .C665e). Two are particularly interesting as they are both the French and German edition of the lithograph after Johann Peter Hasenclever (1810-1853) from the series Le musee des rieurs. The German print is titled Die Schachspieler (Berlin) and in Paris the print is called Les Joueurs d’echecs.

Other chess themes appear in Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827), Check mate. n.d. [1790]. Pen and ink. Graphic Arts Collection Rothrock GA 2014.00739. Below James Bretherton (active 1770-1781), A game at chess [before and after lettering]. London: [s.n.], 1780/03/01. Graphic Arts Collection Oversize GA 2011.01368 and at the bottom George Cruikshank (1792-1878), Game of chess. London: [s.n.], 1819/08/01. Graphic Arts Collection GC022

Proof before lettering above. Note the changes in the final print below, including a second dog.


There is much more, of course, but this is a taste.

 

Detail

A Curious Application of Photography 1857

TelaDoc medicine is not so new. Under the heading: “PARIS GOSSIP: New Freaks of Fashionable Life–A Grisette Strangled in an Eastern Harem–French Marringes–Miscellaneous News,” a story titled “Curious application of photography” was printed in New York Daily Times January 6, 1857, then, reprinted in various other papers as far as the Lancaster Gazetter (from the Paris correspondent of the New York Times), Friday, January 31, 1857.

It looks like this: