Category Archives: prints and drawings

prints and drawings

Body seating dimensions and other early 20th-century issues in car design

Here are a few of the materials pulled for the upcoming writing seminar “Living with AI” led by instructor William Penman and assisted by Anu Vedantham, assistant university librarian for research services. The students will compare early 19th and 20th-century technology with contemporary ways we are “searching YouTube, unlocking our phones with our faces, seeing advertising on Facebook, asking Siri to turn up the music . . . actively and passively use artificial intelligence (AI) daily. How does AI promise new kinds of interactions? Why are some industries turning to AI while others are not? How are the risks and benefits of AI shaping the future design of these technologies?”

Both fiction and non-fiction texts are being considered, including the definitive 20th-century car book, The Great Gatsby.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, “The cruise of the rolling junk,” in Motor (New York, N.Y.)  Vol. 41, no. 3-5 (Feb.-Apr., 1924). Oversize 2003-0046F. “Beginning an adventure in motoring by the author of “This side of paradise.” — Pt. 1. “The modern argonauts, the author and his wife, in a battered Expenso, are en route from Westport, Connecticut, to the family homestead in Alabama. … ” — Pt. 2. “The author and his wife are driving from Westport, Connecticut to the family home in Alabama, in quest of peaches and biscuits …” — Pt. 3.

The Locomobile book: a description of the latest models. Designs by T.M. Cleland (Bridgeport, Conn.: Locomobile Company of America, 19150. Graphic Arts Collection Oversize TL215 .L636 1915q

George E. Goddard, Body seating-dimensions ([Detroit, Mich.? : Society of Automotive Engineers?], 1922). Rare Books Oversize 2008-0305Q




Fortitude outside New York Public Library reading The Great Gatsby.

Poitevin and photographic printing without silver salts


Each of Princeton’s two newly acquired copies of Alphonse Poitevin’s Traité de l’impression photographique sans sels d’argent [=Manual on photographic printing without silver salts] were published in 1862 with an introduction by Ernest Lacan (1829-1879), but have a different set of illustrations. This is not uncommon, since many collectors over the years have removed the plates from some copies and pasted in prints in others.

Between the two volumes, Princeton not only has all the recorded prints in other copies but holds this studio portrait [above] not documented in any other copy of the book. The unidentified gentlemen include Poitevin on the left, Lacan in the middle, and his editor Léon Vidal (1833–1906) on the right. This volume also bears a signed presentation “Á Monsieur Léon Vidal, hommage de profonde gratitude, Poitevin.”

Trained as a chemist, Poitevin worked for the Mines Nationales de l’Est and later, at a silver mine at Kefoun-Theboul in Africa. He became interested in photography, experimenting with methods of photochemical engraving using silver or gold on metal plates. His discoveries in the action of light on bichromated gelatin laid the basis for photolithography, the carbon process, and more. Several of his processes were patented, including collotypes and carbon printing (1855-56), which led to this handbook on non-silver and direct positive processes. See also: https://www.princeton.edu/~graphicarts/2011/07/alphonse_louis_poitevin.html

Alphonse-Louis Poitevin (1819-1882), Traité de l’impression photographique sans sels d’argent: contenant l’histoire, la théorie et la pratique des méthodes et procédés de l’impression au charbon, de l’hélioplastie… [=Manual on photographic printing without silver salts: containing the history, theory and practice of methods and processes of carbon printing, helioplasty …]; avec une introduction par M. Ernest Lacan (Paris: Leiber, 1862). Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2020- in process



Photochemical engraving

Primer centenario de la abolición de la esclavitud en Puerto Rico, 1873-1973


One of the pleasures of welcoming classes to view the Graphic Arts Collection is rediscovering forgotten or under-used resources. During our session with SPA 387/AAS 387 “Puerto Ricans Under U.S. Empire: Memory, Diaspora, and Resistance” taught by Cesar Colon-Montijo and Arcadio Díaz-Quiñones, we rediscovered Primer centenario de la abolición de la esclavitud en Puerto Rico, 1873-1973 or The First Centenary of the Abolition of Slavery in Puerto Rico 1873-1973. This limited edition of 9 fine art prints includes the following:
Rescate by José R. Alicea
Dos caras by Myrna Baez
Abolición? by Rafael López del Campo
22 de marzo by Antonio Maldonado
1873-1973 by Augusto Marín
Y tu abuela, dónde está? by Antonio Martorell
Cumbé by Jaime Romano
1873-1973 by José A. Rosa Castellanos
Quien compra a quien by José Antonio Torres Martinó

Here are a few images:
 

“This seminar examines the ethical and historical dimensions of the 2019 Summer Puerto Rican Protests. Developing within an ongoing financial catastrophe and the trauma of Hurricane María, most issues raised today are deeply rooted in the history of U.S. imperial domination since 1898. The course aims to rethink questions of second-class citizenship, colonial capitalism, militarization, ecocide and massive migrations, as well as gender, sexual and racial inequalities. Special focus on how musical, artistic, religious, political, and literary traditions shape memory and resistance in Puerto Rico and in its vast diasporic communities.”

Primer centenario de la abolición de la esclavitud en Puerto Rico, 1873-1973: portafolio conmemorativo =[First centenary of the abolition of slavery in Puerto Rico, 1873-1973: Commemorative portfolio] (San Juan de Puerto Rico: Fondo de Becas para las Artes Plásticas, 1973). [2] leaves, [9] leaves of plates. Graphic Arts Collection Oversize 2009-0001F. “Edición única de 125 ejemplares … 115 numerados en arábigo y 10 en romano.” The Graphic Arts copy is no. 94.

Mere Bubbles from The Scourge



When it began, The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly specialized in exposing patent medicines, with a chart of fakes in each issue. Each issue had a folding plate, a hand colored etching, that served as illustrations to various articles, only later evolving to single theme political caricature. The plates in the first volume were all by Samuel De Wilde, known for his theatrical portraits exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1792 until 1821. Later issues include plates by George Cruikshank, Charles Williams, and others.

The First Series was published in 66 monthly numbers 1811 to 1816, bound with a yellow pictorial wrappers. Volumes 1-2 were published by the unidentified M. Jones at 5 Newgate Street and sold by J. Johnston, Cheapside and Goddard, Pall Mall. Beginning with volume 3,William Naunton Jones took over as publisher from the same address. The magazine’s title was altered with volume 7 to The Scourge or Literary, Theatrical, and Miscellaneous Magazine. The Graphic Arts Collection is fortunate to hold a complete set.

January 1811
Samuel De Wilde (1751-1832), “New Roads to the Temple of Fortune” in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly v.1, frontispiece (London: M Jones, January 1, 1811). An illustration to four articles in the magazine: (1) “John King,” pp. 1-27. (2) “James Henry Leigh Hunt,” pp. 46-64. (3) “Anthony Daffy Swinton,” pp. 27-46: (4) “Rev. William Huntington, S.S.,” pp. 64-77.

 

“Our Artist has omitted the title of the Caricature, which ought to be MERE BUBBLES.”

February 1811
Samuel De Wilde (1751-1832), [Mere Bubbles] in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly, v.1, before page 85 (London: M Jones, February 1, 1811). An illustration to four articles in the magazine: [1] An account of Mrs. Clarke (pp. 102-36); [2] An account of Sir Godfrey Webster; [3] An account of Mr. William Taylor of the Opera House (pp. 146-64); [4] An account of a quack, Edward Senate, pp. 137-46.

 

March 1811
Samuel De Wilde (1751-1832), “Battle Royal, or Which Has It” in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly v.1, before p. 175 (London: M Jones, March 1, 1811).
A satire on the hopes of the Opposition that the Prince would dismiss the Perceval Ministry on the establishment of the Regency.

April 1811
Samuel De Wilde (1751-1832), “Truth in Jeopardy, or Power, Versus Freedom” in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly v.1 (London: M Jones, April 1, 1811). On 4 Mar. 1811 Lord Holland moved for an account of all ‘Information “Ex Officio”‘ in libel cases from 1 Jan. 1801 to the end of 1810.

 

May 1811
Samuel De Wilde (1751-1832), “British Cookery or ‘Out of the Frying-Pan into the Fire’” in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly v.1 (London: M Jones, May 1, 1811). The plate is explained; “That Ney should be in a pickle and Buonaparte in a stew John Bull will think very natural. General Graham . . . [gives] new vigor to the flame of patriotism.” The spitted goose is Massena.

 

June 1811
George Cruikshank (1792-1878), “Dinner of the Four in Hand Club at Salthill” in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly, v.1, before p. 431. (London: M Jones, June 1, 1811). Illustration to an article ‘The Dinner at Salt Hill’ in The Satirist, March 1, 1811. The Four-in-hand Club met in Cavendish Square, seven members only. The president was C. Buxton (probably Charles, 1787-1817). There is a second state, with the title Bang-up Dinner or Love and Lingo, a frontispiece to Lexicon Balatronicum, A Dictionary of Buckish Slang University Wit, and Pickpocket Eloquence, compiled originally by Captain Grose . . .’, 1811.

 

July 1811
George Cruikshank (1792-1878), “The Return to Office” in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly v.2, frontispiece (London: M Jones, July 1, 1811). Also an illustration to The Duke of York, the Whigs and the Burdettites, pp. 1-5.

August 1811
George Cruikshank (1792-1878), “The Blessing of Paper Money, or King a Bad Subject” in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly v.2, p. ? (London: M Jones, August 1, 1811).

September 1811
George Cruikshank (1792-1878), “Quadrupeds; or the Managers Last Kick. Last Scene” in The Scourge, or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly v.2, before p. 177 (London: M Jones, September 1, 1811). [On 18 July 1811 a heroic, tragic, operatic drama with the title of the print was played for the first time by the English Opera Company at the Lyceum.]

 

October 1811
George Cruikshank (1792-1878), “The Examination, of a Young Surgeon” in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly, v.2, before p. 263 (London: M Jones, October 1, 1811). The plate illustrates ‘Medical Science Exemplified’, pp. 263-8, ridiculing the education and examination of surgeons with special reference to two Scottish examiners, clearly David Dundas and Everard Home, both Serjeant-surgeons to the King.

November 1811
George Cruikshank (1792-1878), “Interior View of the House of God” in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly, v.2, before p. 349 (London: M Jones, November 1, 1811). A savage account of Carpenter, a paper-maker of Neckinger House, appeared in the August number of The Scourge v.2. 94-102. The ‘tickets’ must be the half-sheets signed and sealed by Joanna Southcott, by which the faithful were ‘sealed’ or certificated for the millennium.

December 1811
George Cruikshank (1792-1878), “Princely Piety, or the Worshippers at Wanstead” in The Scourge or Monthly Expositor of Imposture and Folly v. 2, before p. 473. (London: M Jones, December 1, 1811).

Vol. 3
No. 13. The Rehearsal, or the Baron and the Elephant. January 1st, 1812.
No. 14. The Mountebanks, &c., &c. February 1st, 1812.
No. 15. Princely Amusements, &c., &c. March 1st, 1812.
No. 16. Princely Predictions, &c., &c. April 1st, 1812.
No. 17. The Prince of Wales, &c., &c. May 1st, 1812.
No. 18. The Antiquarian Society. June 1st, 1812.
Vol. 4
No. 19. The Political Medley, &c., &c. July 1st, 1812.
No. 20. The Cow Pox Tragedy. 1812.
No. 21. The Coronation of the Empress of the Nairs. September 1st, 1812.
No. 22. An Excursion to R Hall. October 1st, 1812.
No. 23. The Court of Love, &c., November 12th, 1812.
No. 24. Management of Butts and Hogsheads. December 1st, 1812.
Vol. 5
No. 25. Quadrupeds, or, Little Bonev’s Last Kick. January 1st, 1813.
No. 26. The Storming of Monopoly Fort. February 1st, 1813.
No. 27. John Bull in the Cellar, &c., kc. March 1st, 1813.
No. 28. State Mysteries, or, a Vision of Pall Mall. April 1st, 1813.
No. 29. The Delicate Investigation. May 1st, 1813.
No. 30. A Sepulchral Enquiry into English History. June 1st, 1813.
Vol. 6
No. 31. John Bull in the Council Chamber. July 1st, 1813.
No. 32. Preparing John Bull for General Congress. August 1st, 1813.
No. 33. The Regency Park. September 1st, 1813.
No. 34. Rival Candidates for the Vacant Bays. Oct. 1st, 1813.
No. 35. Benefits of a Plentiful Harvest, November. 1st, 1813.
No. 36. The Sale of the Coal Heaver’s Scraps. Decr.1st, 1813.
Vol. 7—”The Scourge or Literary, Theatrical, and Miscellaneous Magazine.”
No. 37. Smuggling in High Life. January 1st, 1814.
No. 38. The Divine and the Donkey, or Petworth Frolicks. February 1st, 1814.
No. 39. Imperial Botany, &c., &c. March 1st, 1814.
No. 40. Modern Idolatry, or, Editors and Idols. April 1st, 1814.
No. 41. Nic, alias Nap’s March to Elba. May 1st, 1814.
No. 42. Royal Munificence, &c., &c. June 1st, 1814.
Vol. 8
No. 43. Spirits at Work—Joanna Conceiving. July 1st, 1814.
No. 44. The R 1 Pedagogue and his Ushers. August 1st, 1814.
No. 45. A Paradise for Fools, &c. In three compartments. September. 1st, 1814.
No. 46. Hocus Poems, or, Conjurers Raising the Wind. October 1st, 1814.
No. 47. Delivering a Prophetess. Nov. 1st, 1814.
No. 48. The Siege of St. Quentin. December. 1st, 1814.

Vol. 9
No. 49. The Property Tax—Civic Champions, or, the Darling in Danger. January 2, 1815.
No. 50. Amusements at Vienna, &c., &c. Feb. 1st, 1815.
No. 51. John Bull’s Three Stages. In three compartments. March 1st, 1815.
No. 52. The High Winds of March blowing Events from all quarters. April 1815.
No. 53. The Phomix of Elba resuscitated by Treason. May 1st, 1815.
No. 54. Preparing for War. June 1st, 1815.
Vol. 10
No. 55. Nebuchadnazzars Dream. July 1st, 1815.
No. 56. A Financial Survey of Cumberland, &c. August 1st, 1815.
No. 57. Napoleon’s Trip from Elba to Paris, and from Paris to St. Helena. Sept. 1st, 1815.
No. 58. Boxiana, or, The ‘Fancy. October. 1st, 1815.
No. 59. The Progress of Disappointment, or the Hopes of a Day. November 1st, 1815.
No. 60. State of Politicks at the close of the year 1815. December 1st, 1815.
Vol. 11
No. 61. Royal Christmas Boxes and New Year’s Gifts, 1815 & 16. January 1st, 1816.
No. 62. Odds and Ends for February, 1816. In three compartments. Feb. 1st, i816.
No. 63. The Pall Mall Apollo, or, R tv in a Blaze. March 1st, 1816.
No. 64. Royal Nuptials. April 1st, 1816.
No. 65. Economy—Anticipation. Two compartments. May 1st, 1816.
No. 66. A Bazaar. June 1st 1816.

 

 

Oak Tree Press First Chapters



The Graphic Arts Collection acquired a nearly complete deluxe set of Oak Tree Press’s First Chapter Series of Booker Prize-winning novels and prints [8 of 10]. Not only are the individual numbered copies signed by the author on the title page and hand bound in cloth, but many include a signed print within the slipcase. The series began in 2006 with J.M. Coetzee’s Life and Times of Michael K, with a lithograph by the South African artist Colbert Mashile [above].

“Colbert Mashile was born in 1972 in Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga and currently lives and works in Johannesburg. Mashile received his Diploma in Fine Arts from the Johannesburg Art Foundation in 1994 and later continued his studies at the University of Witwatersrand where he obtained a BA in Fine Arts in 2000 and a Post-Graduate Diploma in Heritage Studies in 2002. Since then Mashile has presented ten solo exhibitions, with the most recent being Messages from our Ancestors in 2013 at the Art Eye Gallery in Sandton, Johannesburg.” — Read more: https://smacgallery.com/exhibition/colbert-mashile-2015/

 

“Ezequiel Mabote [his work above] is a self-taught artist who grew up in an arts neighborhood in Maputo. He was influenced by the old masters of sculptures, paintings and batiks at the age of 10. He then took art lessons at Noroestel High School in Maputo. In 1998, Ezequiel moved to South Africa to fulfill his dreams in art. He stayed in Durban KwaZulu Natal with his cousin brother, Isaac Sithole. Isaac introduced him to the Bat Centre where he networked with local artists. In 1999, he attended a printmaking workshop at the Bat Centre with Samuel N Mbingilo from the John Muafangejo Art Centre in Namibia.

He held his first exhibition in 1999 at the Intensive Care Café at the Bat Centre and two years later attended printmaking workshops at the Caversham Press in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands under well-known artists such as Malcolm Christian, Dr David Koloane, the late Gabi Nkosi, Kevin Sipp, Xolile Mtakatya and many more. Ezequiel now specializes in printmaking, woodcut colour reduction, oil pastels, paintings, sculptures, murals and bookbinding.”–https://www.maboteart.com/

 

Also part of this series is Midnight’s Children by Salman Rushdie with a lithograph by Thomas Howard; Holiday by Stanley Middleton with a watercolor by the author [above]; The Conservationist by Nadine Gordimer with an etching by Cyril Coetzee; Sacred Hunger by Barry Unsworth with a woodcut by Ezequiel Mabote; The Blind Assassin by Margaret Atwood with an ink drawing by Yoko Ono; The Line of Beauty by Alan Hollinghurst with a lithograph by Gilbert and George [at the top of the page]; and Possession A Romance by A.S. Byatt with a lithograph by David Royle.

Oak Tree Fine Press is a privately owned publishing company based in Oxfordshire, England. “We specialize in exceptionally high quality books featuring work by the world’s greatest authors and artists. All profits from the sales of all our books go to organisations assisting children living with or affected by HIV/AIDS.” http://www.oaktreefinepress.com/site/about.asp

Additional information from the press states, “The support of Nobel Prize winner J. M. Coetzee has been vital to the success of the series, and its second volume featured his Booker Prize winning novel of 1999, “Disgrace.” Since then, a wide range of authors have collaborated on the series, linked by their shared status as Booker Prize winners, and their mutual interest in contributing to a worthwhile cause through the creation of beautiful and thought provoking book. Each book is comprised of the first chapter of the title, accompanied by an illustration made especially for the series.”

Esta noche he pasado

Luis Palés Matos, Esta Noche He Pasado; xilografías Raquel Noemi Quijano Feliciano (San Juan, Puerto Rico: Taller El Polvorín, 2003). Copy: No. 6. Graphic Arts Collection Oversize 2006-0076E

 

 

One of the items pulled for a visit by the students in “Arts & Activism in Puerto Rico,” an intersession immersion trip organized through Princeton’s Pace Center for Civic Engagement, was Esta Noche He Pasado (2003), a three-dimensional artists’ book designed, printed, and constructed by Raquel Quijano Feliciano with poetry by Luis Palés Matos (Graphic Arts Collection Oversize 2006-0076E).

We tried translating the text (Tonight I Have Passed) as we turned the pop-up pages but the poetry is rich and lyrical, with multiple layers and serious word play, such as “He Pasado” meaning he both passes through the black town and “passes for” black.


A translation was attempted by Julio Marzan in The Numinous Site: The Poetry of Luis Palés Matos (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1995). Here are a few lines:

No! La pompa jocunda de estas tribus ha muerto.
Les queda una remota tristeza cuadrumana,
Una pasión ardiente por los brazos alcohols,
El odio milenario del blanco, y la insaciable
Lujuria de las toscas urgencias primitivas.

No! The cheerful pomp of those tribes has died.
All that remains is a remote four-hooved sadness,
A sweltering passion for strong liquor,
An ancient hatred of whites, and the unsated
Indulgence of raw, primitive drives.

Ante este pueblo negro y estas casas de podre
Y esta raza ya hundido para siempre, yo tengo
La vision de espantosos combustibles; la brea,
El diamante, el carbon, el odio y la montaña…

Before this black town and these houses of pus
And this race now sunken forever, I visualize
Spontaneous combustibles; tar,
Diamond, carbon, hatred and the mountain.

 

 

Printmaker Raquel Quijano began her studies in 1993 at the workshops of Liga de Estudiantes de Arte de San Juan and received a B.A. in Graphic Arts at Escuela de Artes Plásticas de San Juan in 2003. Quijano is now a professor at the Liga de Estudiantes de Arte, while also teaching at the Centro para el Grabado y las Artes del Libro de Puerto Rico http://www.puertadetierra.info/noticias/biblio/centro_grabado.htm.

Founded by Consuelo Gotay in June 218, the Center for Engraving and Book Arts of Puerto Rico is located in the renovated Carnegie Library (Biblioteca Carnegie) in San Juan. https://www.facebook.com/GrabadoPR/. It will be one of the spaces you will visit if you are lucky enough to attend Puertográfico 2020 the first week of April, under the auspice of the Southern Graphics Conference https://www.sgcinternational.org/puertografico-2020/

 

 
“El libro … fue impreso en el Taller El Povorín de la Escuela de Artes Plásticas de Puerto Rico en Mayo del 2003. La encuadernación tipo acordeón de este libro ‘pop up’, fue confeccionada en cartón ‘acid free’. Las ilustraciones son Xilografías originales impresas en papel Rive BFK y Classic Linen. El texto fue realizado con tipografía digital Hoefler text transferida a fotoserigrafía.”–Colophon
 

 

Deuxième mémoire sur la lithographie et sur des procédés de retouche et d’effaçade

How to make a correction on a lithographic stone without starting over from the beginning.

 


Alphonse Chevallier (1793-1879) and Pierre Langlumé (1790-1830). Deuxième mémoire sur la lithographie et sur des procédés de retouche et d’effaçade. Paris, no imprint, 1828. 18 pp. (9 lithographic plates and 9 lithographic text). Lithographed index of plates, of which two signed D.R. and lith. Langlumé, and seven with lithographic manuscript signatures of Anselme Payen (1795-1871), Charles-Philibert de Lasteyrie (1759-1849) and Edme-Francois Jomard (1777-1862) dated 26 juillet 1828 in lower white margin of plates.

The Graphic Arts Collection has superb holdings in the history of printing, with lithography well represented. This acquisition brings a key missing piece not only to our collection but to public research holdings for the world.

In the nineteenth century, lithographic printing quickly spread throughout Europe and beyond, particularly after 1818 when Alois Senefelder published a comprehensive manual (English edition: Graphic Arts Collection Oversize Rowlandson 905q and Oversize NE2420 .S5q). Others followed in quick succession and through these we can trace the many technical innovations introduced during the 1820s and 1830s.

 

 

By 1819 printers could read not only Senefelder’s work, but also the leading French manual (Antoine Raucourt de Charleville, Mémoire sur les expériences litrographiques [sic] faites a l’École royale des ponts et chaussées de France. Graphic Arts Collection NE2420 .R2 1819) and the English translation prepared by the London lithographer Charles Hullmandell. (A Manual of Lithography, or, Memoir on the Lithographical Experiments Made in Paris. Graphic Arts Collection 2004-2934N).

 


 

Founded in Paris in 1801, the Société d’encouragement pour l’industrie nationale (Society for Encouraging National Industry) offered medals and prizes for many branches of science and industry, in an effort to promote research and development of “useful knowledge.” In 1826 the Société offered a prize of 100 francs to lithographers “pour la meilleure méthode de faire des retouches” and in 1828 the gold medal was awarded to the chemist Jean-Baptiste-Alphonse Chevallier and the lithographic printer Pierre Langlumé. That same year they published a description of their process Mémoire sur la lithographie et sur des procédés de retouche et d’effacage.

 

 

By that time, many people had perfected printing on stone but no one had found a way to correct or change marks without regrinding the stones and starting from scratch. Chevallier developed the use of a solution of potassium hydroxide (potasse caustique) in varying degrees of strength according to whether the whole drawing was be removed or a small section re-sensitized for further drawing.

According to Michael Twyman “The liberating effect was on a more mundane level; it gave the artist more confidence in the medium. A tone that printed lighter than it looked on the stone could be worked darker after a proof had been taken, accidents in the printing could be repaired, extra foliage could be added to the foreground to improve a picturesque landscape;“ (Twyman, Lithography 1800-1850).

Chevallier and Langlumé wrote their submission to the Société d’Encouragement lithographically and only later, published a letterpress version to the public (see bibliography). It seems that the plates had been produced a month later after the lithographed text was submitted. It’s interesting to note that the dates on the plates are quite crudely corrected from 1826 to 1828. Another important fact is some kind of involvement of and contribution by Charles-Philibert de Lasteyrie in this project, who created the first lithography establishment in France, bringing the technology back from the German Aloys Senefelder.

This lithographically produced treatise is believed to be the only copy of the original edition of Chevallier’s complete work on lithography and represents an important moment in the history of printing.

The letterpress editions:
Alphonse Chevallier (1793-1879). Mémoire sur quelques améliorations apportées à l’art de la lithographie = Dissertation on some improvements made to the art of lithography, Paris: 1828. Mentioned in histories but no copy known to exist.

Alphonse Chevallier (1793-1879). Mémoire sur l’art du lithographe: amélioration à y apporter Paris: Impr. de Cosson, 1829. 45 p. 4 plates. Columbia University, University of Virginia, and Bibliothèque cent du muséum national d’histoire naturelle. *note, Coming to Paris as a youth, Chevallier worked as a laboratory assistant at the Museum of Natural History, so it is not surprising that library holds this rare text.

Alphonse Chevallier (1793-1879) and Pierre Langlumé (1790-1830). Traité complet de la lithographie, ou Manuel du lithographe… ; avec des notes de MM. Mantoux et Joumar... Paris: 1838. 1 vol. (XVI-270 p.) in-8. Multiple collections, no plates in most.

Le tombeau des secrets



1929/1930 marked an important moment in the history of Surrealism and for the French poet René Char (1907-1988) in particular. Early in 1929 while still living in L’Isle sur la Sorgue, Char began writing and publishing, founding the journal Méridiens (complete in three issues Marquand PQ 1141 .M47).

In August 1929, he sent copies of his book Arsenal to Paul Éluard (1895-1952) in Paris, who responded immediately and came to visit him in the south of France. They formed a bond that became a lifelong friendship and in late November Char moved to Paris where Éluard introduced him to André Breton (1896-1966) and the other surrealists.

Char’s Profession de foi du sujet was published in December 1929 in Breton’s journal La Révolution surréaliste, (Marquand NX600.S9 R3) along with Luis Buñuel’s script for Un Chien Andalou, written with Salvador Dalí. Also in December, Buñuel’s new film L’Age d’or was shown in a Paris cinema and Breton published his Second Manifesto of Surréalism, marking a new era for the movement. La Révolution surréaliste is renamed Le Surréalisme au service de la Révolution (special collections Oversize 0904.891) with the two first editions appearing early in 1930.

In the spring of 1930, Char, Breton, and Éluard went on a driving tour of Vaucluse in Southeastern France (located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region). It was on this trip the men collaborate on the small volume Ralentir Travaux (Slow Down Construction, Marquand PQ2603.R35 R313 1990), the title taken from a road sign. In addition, they played with photo-montage constructions using Char’s family photographs.

In April, Char published Le Tombeau des secrets (The Tomb of Secrets) and in each copy of the limited edition included an original collage [see ours at the top], using a photograph of Char’s godmother, Louise Roze but (on Char’s insistence), hiding her face in various ways.

Because of this unique element and Char’s beautiful writing at this pivotal moment in 1930, Le Tombeau des secrets is a rare treasure, now for the first time acquired by the Graphic Arts Collection. This major acquisition was made with the assistance of colleagues in French Literature, Art and Archeology, and European History, for which we are extremely grateful.


René Char (1907-1988), Le tombeau des secrets (The Tomb of Secrets) (Nîmes: Imprimerie A. Larguier, 1930). 12 photographic illustrations reproduced on full pages including the frontispiece. The last is an original collage with added hand color by Paul Éluard and André Breton hiding the face of Char’s godmother, Louise Roze. Our volume has a printed red cover with a modern case. It is copy no.10 of 10 on Japon Imperial paper, with a correction (probably by René Char) on page 11 [see below]. Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2020- in process

Le Tombeau des secrets had a single publication in 1930; as a separate volume of poems, this work is neglected by the critics, perhaps because six of the ten poems of this edition were revised for the 1934 edition of Le Marteau sans maitre in which they were included as a part of Arsenal. …The importance of Le Tombeau des secrets in Char’s poetic formation lies in the fact that, while Surrealism is further praised and explored, there is an indication that the unreal has no value unless it is firmly rooted in the concrete world of man. The quest for poetic truth is continued, but now for the first time Char recognizes that poetry must be joined to the cause of man.–Virginia A. La Charité, The Poetics and the Poetry of René Char (University of North Carolina Press, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for its Department of Romance Studies, 1968)



The decision to purchase this volume was made during “René Char: Poetry and War,” a colloquium at Princeton University February 27-28, 2015. It took a few years but we are now ready for the upcoming Char conference next February 2021 being organized by Prof. Bearman.

Seymour’s “Locomotion” receives new analysis by Princeton freshman

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v4aQZFKYogA

Grace Liu, class of 2023, shared this link to the five minute video she created to accompany her paper on self-driving cars for the 2019 writing seminar “Living with AI” taught by Lecturer Will Penman with support from Anuradha Vedantham, Assistant University Librarian for Research Services. Liu called the assignment “one of the highlights of my first semester.”

This writing seminar came to see various items in the graphic arts collection including Robert Seymour’s two part satirical etching Locomotion: Walking by Steam, Riding by Steam, Flying by Steam, ca. 1830. https://graphicarts.princeton.edu/2016/09/25/self-walking-boots/

Here is the abstract for Penman’s class:

“Searching YouTube, unlocking our phones with our faces, seeing advertising on Facebook, asking Siri to turn up the music: we already actively and passively use artificial intelligence (AI) daily. How does AI promise new kinds of interactions? Why are some industries turning to AI while others are not? How are the risks and benefits of AI shaping the future design of these technologies? This Writing Seminar explores the complex dynamics taking shape between humans and artificial intelligence. We begin by examining ImageNet, a dataset used to develop object-recognition software, in order to analyze how human biases become encoded in machine learning.

Next, we turn to self-driving cars as we question the economic, ecological, social, political, legal, and moral implications of artificial intelligence in the public sphere. For the research project, students select their own area of AI development and make an argument about its relationship to a specific population that engages with it. Possible topics include: romantic love with Samantha in the film Her; AI’s use in diagnosing skin cancer, people’s relationships with robotic pets, and the use of AI in financial trading. At the end of the semester, students each translate their research findings into a short video to share with nonexperts.”

Congratulations to Grace and the whole class. See the other wonderful videos for the writing seminar program WRI 176: Living with AI, now posted on YouTube.

Analogy and harmony of colours

Princeton University Library owns the 1845, new augmented edition of George Field’s essay on harmony and color but not the original 1817 edition, so the two were compared to see what we were missing. The 1817 edition has 57 pages with 5 plates, the later is 263 pages with 11 plates – quite a difference.


George Field (1777?-1854), Chromatics, or, an essay on the analogy and harmony of colours (London: Printed for the Author by A.J. Valpy, 1817). viii, 57, [2] p., [5] leaves of plates). Full text online

George Field (1777?-1854), Chromatics, or, the analogy, harmony, and philosophy of colours, New ed., augm. (London: Bogue, 1845). xviii, 263 p., 11 leaves of plates. Rare Books 2008-0260

In Field’s preface to the 1845 edition he writes:

“This work, as printed twenty-eight years ago [1817], was part of a general treatise on colours, and an abstract of the first principles of chromatic science, constituting one division of a universal system of “Analogical Philosophy.” As it was well received by the artists, and the truth and practicability of its theory continue to be acknowledged, and as we hold the science to be that which, from its middle station, the simplicity, breadth, and perspicuity of its relations, the beauty of its representations, and its easy reference to nature, is best adapted to illustrate the universal analogy of science, we have been induced to republish the work under a wider development, extending the sphere of its application throughout art.”


In fact the revised edition is substantially rewritten (not always for the better) and the color plates much improved. For instance, in the first edition the author concludes: “the principal distinction of the two systems is, that the notes of sound are separated by intervals or spaces, while the notes of colour are the spaces themselves; for colour, as expansible quantity, bears the same relation to space that musical sound, as quantity successive, does to time: the Chromatist has therefore not only his melody and harmony, but he has also, if the variety of expanded quantities may be so expressed, his semibreves [whole notes] and minims [half notes], quavers [8th notes], and semiquavers [16th notes]. And this relation of colours answers to that which, in their music, the ancients called harmonica and rhytlimica theoretically; or practically to their Melopoeia and rhythmopoeia.

In the 1845 edition, Field expands on his theories, not ready to conclude at this point: “In such case there will arise this distinction of the two systems, that the notes of sound being separated by intervals or spaces, while the notes of colour (we beg the term) will be the spaces themselves; but in this diagram the distances on the scales from one sound to another, and those from colour to colour, are equally intervals. Thus from the particular hue and shade of Red to that of Orange on the scale, and from E to F, the corresponding sounds of these colours, are both intervals in which a series of intermediate hues and smaller intervals of sound have place. . . .”

The 1818 edition, Field writes “It is evident also that colours have a science as distinct from any association with figure or forms, as that of musical sounds is from figurative language or poetry. Hence the field in which the Chromatist may exercise his genius, is as extensive as that of the musician : to teach the science in all its bearings, is, however, beyond the purpose of an essay designed principally to illustrate the analogy of colours.”

1845 edition: “We may therefore terminate the present head with the remark, that, although colours have a science as distinct from any necessary connection with that of figures, or plastic, or pictorial forms in painting, as that of musical sounds is from figurative language, or the images of poetry, and are similarly associated; nevertheless, each of these sciences has its highest office under such figurative conjunction, as we shall further shew; whence the field in which the chromatist may exercise his genius is as diversified and extensive as that of the musician. To disclose the subtleties of the science is, however, beyond the purpose of an essay, designed principally to illustrate the analogy of colours.”

While having both is preferable, having the 1845 plates is a treat not fully appreciated with the digital surrogate. The 1817 can be read online until one is gifted. *note, the picture in our database is from the 21st century reprinting, although the record is for the 1845.