Category Archives: prints and drawings

prints and drawings

Henry Martin’s Spots

What do you picture when you hear the word “book”? Henry Martin pictured hundreds of iconic images, which he delivered weekly to the offices of the New Yorker over dozens of years.


As various archives are making big news this week, our archive of Henry Martin’s drawings sits quietly in the vault, no salacious letters to uncover or celebrity photos. Martin, class of 1948, worked as a cartoonist and illustrator for more than forty-five years, publishing in the New Yorker, Ladies’ Home Journal, Saturday Evening Post, and many other magazines. He also had a single-panel comic strip, “Good News/Bad News,” which was nationally syndicated.

Martin had his first drawing accepted at the New Yorker in April 1950, ten years before his first cartoon was accepted. The drawing was a “spot,” one of the tiny iconographic images that appear throughout the magazine. Many artists began this way, including his colleague Peter Arno, whose biography notes: “The first ever New Yorker spot drawing appeared on page three of the first issue—the template for one kind of spot that continued to appear in the magazine until 2005. The drawing, a rectangle at the bottom of the middle column on the Talk of the Town page, was unsigned and had the appearance of a woodcarving.”–Michael Maslin, Peter Arno (2016).

See Martin listed, alphabetically, with other celebrated cartoonists.


It is these drawings or “spots,” for which Martin is best represented in the magazine. A search of the New Yorker’s cartoon database reveals 188 cartoons while our archive of Martin’s drawings shows he made over 1,000 spots. “Books” is just one set from a series of boxes and envelopes. Unlike today’s New Yorker spots, there is no running gag or theme, just pure image. Here are a few more samples. Happy New Year.


Remedies for the vices of speech

Antoine de Bourgogne (ca. 1594-1657). Linguae vitia & remedia Emblematicè expressa (Antwerp: Widow Cnobbaert, 1652). Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2019- in process.

Small oblong 16mo (74 x 97 mm). [12] leaves, 191, [1 bl.] pages ; etched title, 93 full-page etchings. Nineteenth-century red morocco with triple gilt fillet borders, spine and turn-ins gold-tooled, edges gilt over marbling, by Trautz-Bauzonnet. Provenance: James Toovey (1814-1893), London bookseller, armorial gilt bookplate with motto inter folia fructus.


This copy includes the cancelled leaf A8, blank except for pagination and headline on the verso. Interesting that it come at the description of an echo.

Rare book historian Nina Musinsky regards this as one of the most delightful of the Netherlandish emblem books, with 94 miniature etchings. This second Latin edition reprints the same plates and text as that of 1631, which was published at the same time as a Flemish-language edition.

Musinsky notes, “The purpose of the book was to list and propose remedies for the “vices” of speech: garrulousness, equivocation, insults, foul language, detraction, blasphemy, lying, perjury and calumny. The theme can be traced back to antiquity, having been treated by Plutarch in the Moralia; but the author, a member of the secular clergy at the Cathedral of Bruges, was more immediately influenced by Erasmus’s De linguae usu ac abusu” (1525. Princeton Rare Books 2949.32.46).


Part 1 provides examples of improper or sinful speech; two introductory emblems (the first a grisly vision of hell) are followed by 45 examples of such speech, each with an etched emblem on the verso and a motto and four-line poem on the facing recto, with an occasional note in smaller italic type at the foot of the page.


Part 2, with 45 more etchings, turns to the remedies for each kind of evil language (each number responds to the same number in the first part). The delicate unsigned etchings are attributed, apparently without question, to Jacobus Neeffs (1610-1660) and Andries Pauli (or Pauwels) the elder (1600-1639), after designs by Abraham van Diepenbeeck (1596-1675), who dominated Antwerp book illustration at the time.

See more designs by Abraham van Diepenbeeck in three other books at Princeton: The Holy Bible: containing the bookes of the Old & New. Cambridge [England] : Printed by John Field …, 1659-1660. William H. Scheide Library 63.9

The temple of the Muses, or, The principal histories of fabulous antiquity : represented in sixty sculptures / designed and ingraved by Bernard Picart le Romain and other celebrated masters ; with explications and remarks, which discover the true meaning of the fables, and their foundation in history. Amsterdam : Printed for Zachariah Chatelain, 1733. Rare Books Oversize NE1715 .P6f

William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle 1592-1676. A general system of horsemanship in all it’s branches: containing a faithful translation of that most noble and useful work of His Grace, William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, entitled, The manner of feeding, dressing and training of horses for the great saddle … with all the original copper-plates in number forty-three …    London: J. Brindley, 1743. Rare Books Oversize 4235.673f



References: Landwehr (3rd ed.) 96; Funck, Livre belge à gravures, p. 284; Forum, The Children’s World of Learning, part 7, no. 3815; cf. Praz, p. 292 (1631 Latin edition); de Vries, De Nederlandsche Emblemata132 (1631 Flemish edition).



The Chalk Plate process

Cartoons Magazine 4, Issue 4 (1913): 401-03

Beginning in 1885 (copyrighted 1888), wood engraving faced serious competition from a new reproductive process. No, not the Kodak camera. It was the chalk-plate process, or Hoke process, named after Joseph W. Hoke who developed a method of free-hand drawing on a chalk covered metal plate, which was then stereotyped and ready for printing in one or two hours, greatly decreasing the time needed to produce illustrations for breaking news stories and other daily newspaper work.

According to Anne Johnson’s 1914 Notable women of St. Louis, it was Hoke’s daughter and professional artist Martha Hoke (1861-1939) who produced the first and still most famous chalk-plate illustration of a murder victim discovered in a trunk, which she was able to sketch around 1:00 p.m. and the picture printed in the regular afternoon edition of the Post-Dispatch a few hours later.

Miss Martha Hoke… was the first person in St. Louis to make drawings for newspaper illustrations. Her father, Joseph W. Hoke, made a discovery in the line of engraving which he perfected by much experiment upon plates capable of producing, in a very short time, a type which could be set up with reading matter. This was the first successful engraving process using the artist’s drawing directly. Miss Hoke gave her father much assistance in the trial drawings necessary to perfect this method. All illustrations had, up to that time, been engraved on wood, or steel, or stone, or etched on copper. Mr. Hoke prepared a chalk composition, baked upon a steel plate, of such consistency that a drawing could readily be made by a pointed stylus bent at such an angle that when held as a pen or pencil the point would be vertical.

The drawing so made is placed in a stereotyping box and as a matrix it is cast in type metal. This type could be produced in a very short time. The possibilities for newspaper illustrations—which previous to that had been very meager and poor—were developed by an emergency, which at once placed this invention in great demand and general use. The event which so suddenly brought success financially was a murder at the Southern Hotel by a man named Maxwell, who hid the body of his victim, Preller, in a trunk which he left in a room he had occupied. The discovery of this brought out an extra edition of one of the daily papers, with a drawing by Miss Hoke. This famous case made chalk plates known to all newspapers everywhere.

Outside the big city papers, such as the New York Times or the Washington Post, many publishers could not afford to maintain a full photoengraving department and so, used chalk-plates for all their illustrations well into the twentieth century. Manuel Rosenberg included a chapter in his 1922 The Manuel Rosenberg Course in Newspaper Art entitled The Chalk Plate Method for the Artist in the Small Town. “Before the invention of the photoengraving process,” he writes, “the newspaper artist and the cartoonist usually used chalk plates. Today the chalk plate is practically a medium of the past. For small-town publications, however, it is often a more serviceable medium than the up-to-date photo-engraving process.”

As late as 1941, Popular Mechanics was suggesting chalk plates for cartoonist of high school newspapers [below] and offering a full-page description of the process complete with illustrations. (volume 75, no. 1, January 1941, p.117)

Many lengthy descriptions of the process have been published. One appeared in The Art Amateur: Devoted to Art in the Household 44, no. 6 (May 1901): 158, entitled “How to make chalk plates.”

The following is the method of producing on “chalk plates” such illustrations as are used for general newspaper work: A metal plate, covered with a coating of chalk about a sixteenth of an inch thick, is put into the hands of the draftsman. It should be the actual size of the illustration to be made. The draftsman draws upon the plate with a metal point or needle, like a shoemaker’s awl; every time he makes a line he removes the chalk from that part of the plate, and the exposing of the metal makes his drawing appear dark, contrasted with the whiteness, of the chalk. [In much the same way the etcher removes his etching ground from a copper plate with the etching needle; the etching ground, however, is wax, and it usually is darkened by smoking, so that, the copper of the plate being light, the drawing appears light upon a dark ground.]

When the artist has finished his drawing—which is really a scratching away of the chalk—the plate is handed to a stereotyper, who makes a stereotype of it. This is done in the following way: It is put into a casting box, not unlike an iron waffle pan, which when closed leaves an opening about one-fourth of an inch in front of the plate, and on the top of which there is an opening, into which the stereotyper pours liquid type metal, as a boy pours melted lead into a bullet mould. The metal fills the vacuum in front of the plate and runs into each gully or furrow which the draftsman’s needle point has made. Of course where the chalk has not been removed, the type metal does not go; when the metal is cold and the casting—box opened, we find a thin plate of metal where the lines rise to an even height, wherever the artist has scratched a line down to the metal plate; but the plate is lower wherever the unremoved chalk prevented the liquid touching the metal plate. This crust of type metal fastened to a block, so that it is type high, resembles a wood engraving or a photo-engraved plate, and serves the same purpose. When the inked rollers of the printing press go over it, they ink the raised lines only, which correspond to the lines the artist drew, and hence it prints just like type.

This method of making illustrations for the newspapers has great advantages and disadvantages. It has the advantage of cheapness, for the plates cost next to nothing, and when the castingbox is once bought the expense of type metal and the recoating of the plates is very slight. It is a very quick method also, as an artist can draw a portrait half an hour before the paper goes to press. His drawing may take fifteen minutes and the casting fifteen minutes more. In photo-engraving, the photographing and etching of the plate takes a couple of hours. The disadvantage of the method is that the artist must make his drawing the exact size it is to be printed, while for photo-engraving he usually works on a larger scale, which is not only easier for him, but when a drawing thus made is reduced it has a greater appearance of fineness and finish than a drawing made small. Then, too, the laying bare of the plate with a metal point, and raising a dust of chalk, which sometimes covers up the lines, is not as pleasant a way of working—does not seem as natural as drawing with a pen on Bristol board. In pen drawing. also, more pressure on the pen turns a thin line into a thick one; in the chalk-plate process, to thicken a line you either have to go over it several times, removing chalk on its sides, or else use a larger instrument than you used for the fine lines.”

See also: R.M.A., “Stereotyping Chalk Plates,” The Inland Printer 28, no. 2 (November 1901): 194-96.

Note, chalk-plates should not be confused with chalk manner engraving from the eighteenth century.

Neither should it be confused with relief line block printing, a technique that uses a negative of a line drawing being contact printed onto a photosensitized metal plate. Light hardens this emulsion into an acid resist while non-exposed areas are washed away in warm water. When etched in a bath of acid the metal surrounding the emulsion protected lines is eaten away forming a low relief, which can be printed as any relief matrix.

A Bouquet of the Last Century

James Gillray (1756-1815), A Bouquèt of the last Century. – t’was thus, heretofore, honest Dames shew’d their Faces, / When Ball Nights & Birth Nights, call’d forth all their Graces! – / But now, (-las-a-day!) what with Wigs and with Vails, / Our Fair Ones, hide Faces, and all, – but their Tails!, February 1, 1802. Hand colored etching and aquatint. Graphic Arts Collection GAX

Dorothy George wrote “An elderly lady sits very upright in a glass-fronted coupé, the side window forming a frame. She has simply-dressed powdered hair on which is a turban-like drapery; a fichu covers her neck. Her dress, in front of which is a large bouquet of flowers, is shaped to the waist in a way very different from the fashion of the day.”–Catalogue of Political and Personal Satires in the British Museum, VIII, 1947. George identified the lady as the Dowager Lady Dacre (Mary, née Fludyer, 1755-1808, widow of the 18th Baron Dacre (d. 1794) whose tomb she is said to have visited daily.

After the death of her husband, Lady Dacre inherited Lee Place in Kent, as well as a share in the estates of Trevalyn Hall and Plas Teg in Flintshire. Agreements among the heirs resulted in Lady Dacre’s full ownership of the Plas Teg estate (near Hope, Flintshire) by 1799. …Of her life at her principal residence at Lee Place, “It is reported that the widow visited his tomb, at Lee, near Blackheath, daily, until her decease in 1818 [sic]. She usually rode from her mansion to the Churchyard on a favourite pony, wore a large flapping drab beaver hat, and cloth habit trailing to the ground. At home, she evinced an eccentric reverence for her deceased husband; his chair was placed, as in his lifetime, at the dinner table, and the unfilled seat seemed to feed her melancholy*.”–“Some Account of the Citizens of London and Their Rulers, from 1060 to 1867” p. 154, Benjamin Brogden Orridge, 1867.

See more:


t’was thus, heretofore, honest Dames shew’d their Faces,
When Ball Nights & Birth Nights, call’d forth all their Graces! –
But now, (-las-a-day!) what with Wigs and with Vails,
Our Fair Ones, hide Faces, and all, – but their Tails! –

An American Rasputin

Reproduced in Henry Vincent, The story of the Commonweal: Complete and graphic narrative of the origin and growth of the movement (Chicago: W. B. Conkey company, 1894).

[left Carl Browne as Christ]

The Los Angeles Times called Carl Browne a blackmailer, liar, fraud, swindler and editor [who descended as] a swarm of devouring locust on the rapidly flourishing city of Los Angeles.” Elsewhere he is simply labeled a charismatic cartoonist or P.T. Barnum with a pen. What are we to make of this artist who obtained national stature, both good and bad?

Additional material on Carl Dryden Browne (1849–1914) is being collected for an extended article, especially pre-1894. Thank you for your help.

“The members of the Bimetallic Convention* at Chicago must feel greatly flattered at the presence in their midst of that inexpressible fraud and fakir [sic], Carl Browne, who yesterday “shot off his mouth” to the extent of several hundred words of Associated Press report. This long-haired, bearskin-coated freak of nature, who calls himself an artist, because he, in common with monkeys and children, has the ability to deface white paper with black lead—which he does in a manner that would disgrace a first-grade pupil—has organized a league of some sort, to be run of course, for revenue only. Since he dealt out nauseous taffy to the Southern Pacific Company in one of his disreputable sheets—which should have been impounded for pubic soliciting—he has resided on a comfortable ranch in Napa county. A nice [?] sort of a character this, to champion the cause of the down-trodden people! The silverites ought to purge themselves of such cattle as Carl Browne if they desire to retain the respect of the people.–“Carl Browne” Los Angeles Times, August 3, 1893.

[*The American Bimetallic League, founded by silver mine owners in 1889, perfected a national organization in 1892, took on a wider pubic membership during the depression of 1893 and organized massive public meetings across the country throughout the next three years. –Daniel Klinghard, The Nationalization of American Political Parties, 1880–1896 (2010)]

Gillray’s portrait of a traitor

James Gillray (1756-1815), Evidence to character; Being a portrait of a traitor, by his friends & by himself, October 1, 1798. Etching. Graphic Arts Collection. First published in Anti-Jacobin Review, September 1798, p.285 [above] then issued as a separate print. [below]

On 27th February 1798 [Arthur O’Connor] and his friend Rev. James O’Coigley… with Binns, Allen, and Leary, were arrested at Margate, on their way to France, on a supposed mission from the United Irishmen. In O’Connor’s baggage were found a military uniform, £900 in cash, and the key to a cipher correspondence with Lord Edward FitzGerald. …
O’Coigley, who was sentenced to death, and executed on Pennington Heath…O’Connor…was transferred to Dublin and committed to Newgate.
…The examination of O’Connor and his fellow-prisoners before select committees of the Irish Lords and Commons throws the fullest light upon the origin and progress of the movement that led to the Insurrection of 1798.–

Rather than caricature current events, here James Gillray merely transcribed the testimony at the trial of Arthur O’Connor (1763-1852) on May 22, 1798 at Maidstone. Extracts were published in damaging juxtaposition in Wright’s pamphlet, Evidence to Character; or, the Innocent Imposture: being … [ut supra] [below]. The introduction concludes: ‘It is not often that such Information as this can be obtained for the Public, from the Parties themselves on Oath.’

Lord Carlisle wrote: “If there is a lower political hell than any we before have witnessed, I think the opposition have found it out for themselves, by their connection with O’Connor and such worthies.” Auckland Corr.’ iv. 52.

In Gillray’s print O’Connor stands at the bar making a confession which, though condensed, does not differ substantially from that made by him, McNevin, and Emmet, published in the Report of the Secret Committee made to the Irish House of Commons on 21 Aug. “I confess, that I became an United Irishman in 1796 & a Member of the National Executive, from 1796, to 1798. …”

The witnesses include Fox: “I swear that he is perfectly well affected to his Country, – a Man totally without dissimulation – i know his principles are the principles of the Constitution”. (Fox said: “I always thought Mr O’Connor to be perfectly well affected to his country . . . attached to the principles and the constitution of this country, upon which the present family sit upon the throne, and to which we owe all our liberties.”

Next stands Sheridan: “I know him intimately; – I treated him, & he treated me, with Confidence! – & I Swear, that, I never met with any man, so determined against encouraging French Assistance”. The last words resemble those of Sheridan, with the significant omission ‘in this country’.

Next is Erskine: “His friends, are all MY friends! and I therefore, feel MYSELF intitled upon MY Oath, to say, that he is incapable, in MY judgement, of acting with treachery, & upon MY oath, I never had any reason to think that his principles differed from MY own so help ME god” Though abbreviated, this is only very slightly burlesqued.

Next is the Duke of Norfolk: “I consider him attached to constitutional principles, in the Same way as myself”. His evidence ended ‘I consider him as a gentleman acting warmly in the political line and attached to . . . [ut supra]”.

The trial of O’Connor, with O’Coigley and others, at Maidstone is combined with the proceedings in Dublin after the Irish Rebellion. For the confessions see ‘Report from the Committee of Secrecy of the House of Commons in Ireland’, 21 Aug. 1798, Appendix xxxi.

The first printing of a Mozart cantata commissioned by Franz Heinrich Ziegenhagen

First of several music plates

This is the first printed appearance of Die ihr des unermeßlichen Weltalls (also called Eine kleine deutsche Kantate; Little German Cantata) (K619) written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) in 1791, the same year as he wrote The Magic Flute and also the year of his death. The setting here is for soprano and piano but later composers have arranged the work for orchestra as well as string quartets.

The libretto by Franz Heinrich Ziegenhagen (1753–1806), who commissioned the work from his fellow mason, covers the relationship of the progressive and masonic ideal to the commandment of love as outlined in Ziegenhagen’s book Lehre vom richtigen Verhältniss zu den Schöpfungswerken.

Franz Heinrich Ziegenhagen (1753-1806), Lehre vom richtigen Verhältniss zu den Schöpfungswerken und die durch öffentlicche Einführung derselben allein zu bewürkende allgemeine Menschenbeglückung [=The Teaching of the Right Relationship to the Works of Creation and the General Happiness That Can Only Be Admirable by Public Introduction of Them]. Herausgegeben von F. H. Ziegenhagen… einer Musik von W.A. Mozart (Hamburg: Herausgeber, 1792). Prints by Daniel Niklaus Chodowiecki (1726-1801). Graphic Arts Collection 2019- in process

Ziegenhagen was a German industrialist, freemason and philanthropist who spent his entire fortune trying to realize his utopian ideals in actual communities.

The utopian minded philanthropist Franz Heinrich Ziegenhagen appeared just as “revolutionary” in Hamburg in 1792. …. Ziegenhagen’s utopian concept of a social order of “Liberté, égalité et fraternité” rested upon Rousseauian principles, and he … conceived of agrarian colonies where everything is built upon communal property and communal work. Here the political principle that every member of the community is electable would rule, that is to say that there would be an absolute democracy. Indeed, Ziegenhagen dared even to send an abbreviated version of his essay to the National Convention in Paris in the fall of 1792 with the demand to implement his suggestions as soon as possible in France. However, neither the French National Convention nor the few German princes and universities to whom he sent this book reacted to his appeal. –Peter Uwe Hohendahl, Patriotism, Cosmopolitanism, and National Culture: Public Culture in Hamburg 1700-1933 (Rodopi, 2003)

At the heart of the community was Ziegenhagen’s passion for educational reform: An “Erziehungs-kommune,” or educational commune, was to be set up where all children would be educated together without distinction based on birth, wealth or any other kind of status. An emphasis was also to be placed on activities, with practical lessons taught alongside the theoretical.

Ziegenhagen actually founded an agricultural community along these lines in Billwerder, near Hamburg but failed to gain the wider support needed for his initiative to succeed. Forced to sell the property in 1802, Ziegenhagen retired to his home town of Elsass where he committed suicide in 1806.

The etched plates are by Daniel Niklaus Chodowiecki (1726-1801), born in Poland but who spent most of his life in Berlin and became the director of the Berlin Academy of Art. His largest folding plate depicts the realization of Ziegenhagen’s utopian project, featuring [above] the author on horseback surveying the busy scene of the community in action. The frontispiece [top] shows a lecture hall with its tall walls filled with illustrations of natural history and students packed into the benches. Six other etchings depict classroom scenes, including a scene with older children in a laboratory, a ‘Kunst-Kammer’ in the background, being taught how to dissect a pig.

 …Love me in my works,
Love order, proportion, harmony!
Love yourselves and your brothers!
Strength and beauty shall be your ornament
And clarity of understanding your nobility.
Hold out the brotherly hand of everlasting friendship;
It was delusion, not truth, that withheld it for so long.

Government hope and despair, Impeachment stays in the hat, 1802

James Gillray (1756-1815), Hope, April 8, 1802. Hand colored etching with aquatint. Graphic Arts Collection GA 2006.01263. Gift of Dickson Q. Brown, Princeton University Class of 1895.

Interior view seen in full below:

James Gillray (1756-1815), Sketch of the interior of St Stephens, as it now stands, March 1802. Hand colored etching with aquatint. Graphic Arts Collection GA 2006.01468. Gift of Dickson Q. Brown, Princeton University Class of 1895.

Companion print below:

James Gillray (1756-1815), Despair, April 8, 1802. Hand colored etching with aquatint. Graphic Arts Collection GA 2006.01252. Gift of Dickson Q. Brown, Princeton University Class of 1895.

Impeachment remains in the hat along with ministerial tricks, plunders, blunders, and other misdemeanors.

In the first print, fat MP William Dickinson (active 1796-1802) stands outside the door of the House of Commons, where Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth (1757-1844) is speaking. Dickinson mumbles, “let me see – 25 Millions! how are we Ruin’d? – 10 pr Cent for my Money! – income tax taken off! – well! – well! – well! – .”

On April 2, 1802, Dickinson seconded the Clergy Non-Residence Bill and on April 4, in the companion print, Richard Bateman Robson (active 1802) announced that the finances of the Government were desperate and that it could not pay its bills. He says “We’re all ruinated, Sir! – all diddled, Sir!! – abus’d by Placemen, Sir!!! – Bankrupts all, Sir! – not worth Sixteen Pounds, Ten Shillings, Sir! ”

In his coat are papers, “Ignorance of ye Old Administration; Stupidity of ye New Administration; Charges against the Ministry”. In his hat, “Ministerial Tricks, Plunders, Blunders, Collusion; Impeach[ment]; Punishm[ent].

On April 5, Henry Addington made a dramatic budget speech (in his hand is a paper inscribed: 25 Mill. Loan) announcing a loan of £25,000,000. He successfully abolishes Pitt’s income tax, although it is reintroduced by Addington in 1803.

–Mark Lucas, The Consequences of Honour (2013).

Le Plutarque français

Édouard Mennechet, editor, Le Plutarque français: vies des hommes et des femmes illustres de la France, depuis le cinquième siècle jusqu’a nos jours, avec leurs portraits en pied gravés sur acier, [=The French Plutarch: lives of illustrious men and women of France, from the fifth century to the present day, with their full-length portraits engraved on steel] ([Paris, 18??]). Graphic Arts Collection Oversize 2004-1041Q

The Graphic Arts Collection holds 35 separate parts from different volumes of Le Plutarque français. Each has the hand colored steel engraving laid in mid-volume, rather than a frontispiece. The men and women profiled are: Georges, cardinal d’Amboise. — Louis XII. — Bayard. — François Rabelais. — Marguerite de Valois. — Le cardinal du Bellay. — Anne de Montmorenci. — François Ier. — Clément Marot. — Cossé-Brissac. — Michel de l’Hospital. — Ambroise Paré. — Jacques Amyot. — Gaspard de Coligny. — François de Guise. — Catherine de Medicis. — Ronsard. — Brantôme. — Louis Ier de Bourbon. — Etienne Jodelle. — Montaigne. — Crillon. — Marie Stuart. — Lesdiguières. — Le duc de Guise. — Philippe de Mornay. — Henri IV. — de Thou. — de Malherbe. — Sully. — Bassompierre. — Mathieu Molé. — Jean le Clerc. — Guez de Balzac. — Gondi.

A complete table of contents for Le Plutarque français, as well as an index to the painters and engravers can be found in the 1838 edition available through google books: Here are a few more plates.




What Did George Washington Really Look Like?

George Washington portrait collection GC046 Box 1-6 Graphic Arts Collection