Category Archives: prints and drawings

prints and drawings

Cruikshank letter

George Cruikshank (1792-1878), [Cries of London] ([London, Dublin; J. Robins, 1827-29?]). Graphic Arts Collection Cruik 1827.4 (9 pl. by R. Cruikshank, and the remainder by G. Cruikshank). Autograph letter written and signed by G. Cruikshank, to J. Hawkins, esq. June 1850, inserted at beginning. Gift of Richard Waln Meirs, class of 1888

This small volume of Cries of London by Robert and George Cruikshank has no title page. In its place is pasted a letter from George to J. Hawkins:

[George Cruikshank] 48 Mornington Place. June 12th, 1850
Sir. I was in the country when your note arrived here – and since my return I have been expecting any day to be able to call upon you – but have been prevented by a [?pressure] of enjoyments. Shall however visit upon you now in the course of a few days,

Might this be a note to the print collector mentioned in the British Museum database:

John Heywood Hawkins (1802/3-1877). Major British print collector and member of Parliament; of Bignor Park, Sussex. Gave some prints in 1849. Part of collection in sale of prints and drawings, Sotheby’s, 29.iv. -8.v.1850. Hawkins retained many of the rest. In 1854/5 he sold his Netherlandish prints to Colnaghi’s who gave the first refusal to the BM (see 1855,0114.206 to 229, and 1855,0414.231 to 280, purchased for £508 1s). In 1857 he sold his early Italian prints to Colnaghi, who again gave the first refusal to the BM. Carpenter successfully asked the Trustees to purchase 58 for £450 (1858,0417.1571 to 1628). Hawkins sold a number of drawings directly to Sotheby’s in 1861, whence the BM purchased 31. Others of his prints and drawings came to the BM later via other routes.

An invitation to the ball

From 1892 to 1966, current and former students of the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts (ENSBA) held an annual, elaborately costumed ball, many at the Moulin Rouge, the Salle Wagram, or the Parc des Expositions Porte de Versailles.

Beginning in 1900 each ball had a specific historic theme, often derived from an ancient text or inspired by an exotic foreign culture. This invitation [above and below] lists some of the themes.

The invitations posted here are some of the more modest, with the risqué examples held back. The balls themselves became notorious for nudity and debaucherous activities, the students trying to out-do themselves with each year. We are told the event ended the next morning with “a procession through the Latin Quarter, a romp around the Louvre, and a march over the Pont du Carrousel to the Théâtre de l’Odéon, where the party goers would disband.”

Costumes and masks were absolutely required however, “the soldier—the dress suit, black or in color— the monk—the blouse—the domino—kitchen boy—loafer—bicyclist, and other nauseous types” were prohibited.


The Graphic Arts Collection recently acquired invitations for the Bal des Quat’Z’Arts from the following years: 1912, 1917, 1923, 1925, 1926, 1928, 1930, 1931, 1932, 1933, 1934, 1946, 1947, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, and 1956.

Happily, a website has been established to bring together the history of these mad balls, located at:

A collection of 27 invitations to the Bal des Quat’Z’Arts, 1912-1956. Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2019- in process

Voyages à Peking

In preparation for the Chinese Lunar New Year Parade, which kicks off at 1:00 on February 17, 2019, on Mott Street in New York City (complete details at, here are some plates of celebration and working life in China over 200 years ago.

Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes (1749-1845), Voyages à Peking, Manille et l’Ile de France, faits Dans l’intervalle des années 1784 à 1801, par M. de Guignes, Résident de France à la Chine, attaché au Ministère des Relations extérieures, Corrspondant de la première et de la troisième Classe de l’Institut (Paris: Imprimerie impériale, 1808). Atlas volume holds 97 engravings on 65 leaves by Jacques Eustache de Sève (1790-1830) after sketches by de Guignes. Rare Books 1722.418 and 1722.418f. The complete volume can be found on Gallica:

After 17 years living and traveling in China, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes returned to his native Paris in 1801 and began organizing his notes and sketches. He collaborated with the young artist Jacques Eustache de Sève (1790-1830) to engrave over one hundred drawings of 18th-century China, including architecture, street life, local events and costumes. The number and order of plates seems to vary between editions of this popular book.

See more De Sève art:
J. B. (Jean Baptiste) Pujoulx (1762-1821), Le naturaliste du second âge: ouvrage destiné à servir de suite et de complément au Livre du second âge (Paris: Chez Gide, libraire, rue Christine, no 3, an XIII–1805). Cotsen Children’s Library Euro 18 12320

Charles Perrault (1628-1703), Histoires, ou, Contes du temps passé: avec des moralités (A La Haye, & se trouve a Liege: Chez Bassompierre, libraire & imprimeur, MDCCXXVII [1777]). Cotsen Children’s Library Euro 18 25153

Grande vue panoramique de Paris sous Louis XIV

Nicolas Berey (ca.1610-1665). Grande vue panoramique de Paris sous Louis XIV, Prise de Ménilmontant. [at top] Lutetiae, vulgo Paris, Urbis Galliarum primariae, non Europae solius, sed orbis. Totius celeberrimae prospectus, N. Berey ex. Dédiés à Messieurs les Prévosts des Marchands et Echevins de la Ville de Paris, par leur très humble serviteur N. (Nicolas) Berey = Great panoramic view of Paris under Louis XIV, taken from Ménilmontant [20th arrondissement]. Paris, France, the principal city, not only in Europe but the world. Populous in all perspectives. Dedicated to the directors of the merchants and aldermen of the City of Paris, by their very humble servant N. (Nicolas) Berey. Paris, chez N. Berey, Près les Augustins aux deux Globes, avec privilège du Roy, ca. 1655. Acquired in part with funds provided by the Friends of the Princeton University Library. Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2019- in process


With sincere thanks to the Friends of the Princeton University Library, the Graphic Arts Collection has acquired this nearly 8 foot assembled panorama of Paris from around 1655. Gravée [Gravure] à l’eau-forte et au burin par Noël Cochin (Troyes 1622-Venise 1695) et imprimée sur 4 feuilles de papier verge. = Etched and engraved by Noël Cochin, printed on 4 sheets of laid paper.


The central engraving is completed at the top by the title (carved in wood so letters print white) “Lutetiae, vulgo Paris, Urbis Galliarum primariae, non Europae solius, sed orbis. Totius celeberrimae prospectus, N. Berey ex.” and at the bottom and sides by 18 prints representing the King, the Duke of Anjou, and 16 monuments or particular views of Paris. The panorama forms a circle from the Abbey of Saint-Antoine on the left (southeast) to Montmartre in the north.

Note the words “Totius celeberrimae prospectus.” With more than four hundred thousand inhabitants in the 1650s, Paris was the most heavily populated city in Europe. This prospect conveys its density, showing the city packed into a basin in the midst of hills in which it would later rise, causing the windmill sentries to disappear. Cochin assigns the starring roles to the churches, which provide the only important verticals besides those of the strongholds of the Bastille and the Temple.

An additional 18 columns of letterpress text in French and Latin form the bottom row, listing and describing the views presented (loosely translated, Brief Description of the Estate, Grandeur, and remarkable particularity of the City, ‘University of Paris.’).

See also: Catalogue de livres et estampes relatifs à l’Histoire de la ville de Paris et de ses environs provenant de la Bibliothèque de Feu M. Hippolyte Destailleur, n°157.

Sue Reed, French Prints from the Age of the Musketeers, no. 59.



As indicated by his sign, “Aux deux globes” on the Quai des Augustins, Nicolas Berey primarily sold maps and topographical views. He seems to have opened the shop around 1639 and joined with Antoine de Fer to buy the copper plates from Christopher Tassin. It was a neighborhood where other publishers and merchants of intaglio prints were also located at that time. Among his other cartographic works is the Carte Generale de toutes les postes et traverses de France, published around 1640, with all the routes and stops of the postal services in France in the second quarter of the 17th century.

At his death in June 1665, his son Nicolas (II) continued the publishing and running of the shop. Unfortunately, only two years later the young Nicolas also died, leaving the shop and printing in the hands of Alexis-Hubert Jaillot, who was married to Jeanne, the daughter of Nicolas and half-sister of Nicolas (II).

In an interesting side note, the engraver Noël Cochin (brother to Nicolas Cochin) was illiterate, quite a rare for a printmaker at that time. Since he could not sign (engrave) his name, he would draw a small cavalier, charging on horseback, at the bottom of documents and prints.




A Key to the Panorama of London from Albion Mills

Now on deposit in the Graphic Arts Collection, thanks to Bruce Willsie, Class of 1986, is a rare engraving: Robert Barker (1739-1806) and Henry Aston Barker (1774-1856), [Key to the panorama ‘London from the roof of the Albion Mills’], ca. 1792. Graphic Arts Collection.


Patented in 1787 by Robert Barker, the 365° painted panorama transported spectators into a virtual reality of place and time. Advertisements read: “There is no Deception of Glasses, or any other whatever; the View being only a fair Sketch, displaying at once a Circle of a very extraordinary Extent, the same as if on the Spot; forming, perhaps, one of the most Picturesque Views in Europe.”

In 1791, Barker’s first London show, View of London from the Roof of the Albion Mills, began at the five-story, steam-powered flour mill on the south side of Blackfriars Bridge designed by Samuel Wyatt in 1786 but gutted by fire in March 1791.* After London, the painting toured Europe and many of the brochures or descriptions given to the audiences were printed in several languages.


“[Robert] Barker’s Panorama of London from Albion Mill does not survive, although contemporary visual evidence is offered by two descriptive orientation keys and a set of commemorative aquatints. Panorama visitors were given such descriptive keys gratis, not only as souvenirs, but also to inform them of significant sights: they are themselves an important response to Barker’s epistemological anxiety about his painting.

Two orientation keys survive for Barker’s Panorama of London: the first, an undated and cheaply printed [engraving], which can be speculatively dated to 1792, and the second, entitled Panorama de Londres, with the text in French and English, probably issued in Paris c. 1803. –Markman Ellis, “Spectacles within doors’: Panoramas of London in the 1790s”

The panorama’s scenes weren’t what you might expect. One set of the six memorial aquatints can be found at the British Museum, and a mounted set is held at the Government Art Collection, Queen’s Yard, 179a Tottenham Court Road, London [see below].

The British Museum has two versions of the key print, describing one as written in French and Dutch, although it appears to be the same as Princeton’s engraving in English, French, and German.

Robert Barker (1736-1796), London from the Roof of the Albion Mills: a Facsimile of Robert and Henry Aston Barker’s Panorama of 1792-3 / introduction by Ralph Hyde ; keys by Peter Jackson (London: Guildhall Library Publications in association with the London Topographical Society, 1988). Marquand Library Oversize DA682 .B37e


“This 360 degree view is taken from the roof of the Albion sugar mills at the S. end of Blackfriars Bridge, to which vantage point Henry Aston Barker was sent to make sketches by his father, Robert Barker, in the winter of 1790-91 … The son’s drawings were then greatly enlarged and painted in distemper on canvas by Robert Barker to create a 1,479 sq. ft. exhibition panorama. This at first was exhibited at … Leicester Square … Birnie’s aquatints of H.A. and R. Barker’s London panorama were prepared and published while it was still on exhibition in Castle Street and testify to the show’s popularity. … Altick records that the six aquatints served as the source for America’s first panorama show. Taken to the United States by a gentleman named Laing, they were copied onto canvas by William Winstanley. The resulting panorama was exhibited in Greenwich Street, New York City, in 1795.”–Ralph Hyde, Gilded Scenes and Shining Prospects: Panoramic Views of British Towns 1575–1900. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale Center for British Art, 1985.

*The fire in the Albion Mills and perhaps Barker’s panorama were the inspiration for
Jerusalem by William Blake [preface to Milton]:
And did those feet in ancient time
Walk upon Englands mountains green:
And was the holy Lamb of God,
On Englands pleasant pastures seen!

And did the Countenance Divine,
Shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here,
Among these dark Satanic Mills?

Bring me my Bow of burning gold:
Bring me my arrows of desire:
Bring me my Spear: O clouds unfold!
Bring me my Chariot of fire!

I will not cease from Mental Fight,
Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand:
Till we have built Jerusalem,
In Englands green & pleasant Land.

The rescue of Cardinal Vincenzo Maria Orsini, future Pope Benedict XIII, and other miracles


Two months after the Saint’s death, Drusilla, wife of Antonio Fantini, fell from a balcony at the height of twenty palms into a court-yard, striking her head against some pieces of iron which were lying on a table; her lower lip was cut through in three places, and her right eye protruded from the socket; both her eyes indeed were so much injured that her sight was entirely gone; her nose was crushed, and her teeth broken, and there was a deep gash in her left hand; moreover, great quantities of blood issued from her mouth, and she was to all appearance a corpse. …

In the meanwhile Antonio Franco, the surgeon, arrived, and when he had examined the wounds and injuries, he gave it as his opinion that it was quite impossible she should survive …

After these fifteen days, … the sick woman was left alone in the house, she recommended herself in her heart to S. Philip, who formerly was her spiritual father; and as she prayed she felt on a sudden a great weight in her breast, and it seemed as though a handkerchief were forced down her throat, and then gradually drawn up again; whereupon her sight was instantly restored, and she saw the holy father vested as a priest, with a glory around his head, and he was holding the handkerchief in his hand all covered with blood; he said moreover, “Do not be afraid, for thou wilt not die this time:” and in an instant she was cured …. [1847 English translation]

Pietro Giacomo Bacci (ca. 1575-1656), Vita di S. Filippo Neri Fiorentino, fondatore della Congregazione dell’Oratorio … con la notizia di alcuni compagni del medesimo santo, aggiunta dal P. Maestro Giacomo Ricci = Life of St. Philip Neri Fiorentino, founder of the Congregation of the Oratory … with the news of some companions of the same saint, added by Fr. Maestro Giacomo Ricci (Rome: Bernabò and Lazzarini, 1745). Graphic Arts Collection GAX -in process

The Graphic Arts Collection recently acquired a lavishly illustrated edition of the popular hagiography (biography of a saint) of Filippo Neri (1515-1595), first published in 1622 and reissued continuously through the twentieth century.

The artists of the frontispiece, title vignette, and 45 engraved plates include:
Engraved portrait frontispiece by the German engraver Christian Sas (born 1648, active 1660) after the French painter Jacques Stella (1596-1657).
Engraved title vignette of the Virgin and Child on the half-moon and 41 plates are by the Italian engraver Luca Ciamberlano (born ca. 1570) after the Italian painter Guido Reni (1575-1642); three plates are by Sas after Stella; and one (no.45) is by the Italian artist Girolamo Frezza (1659-ca. 1741) after the Italian painter Pier Leone Ghezzi (1674-1755).

Dealers note: New to this edition is a plate (p. 45) depicting the miraculous rescue of Cardinal Vincenzo Maria Orsini, future Pope Benedict XIII, from the rubble of the church of the Annunziata in Benevento during the earthquake that devastated the area in 1688.

Read more about the iconography of the plates: Massimo Leone, Saints and Signs: A Semiotic Reading of Conversion in Early Modern Catholicism (2010) p. 292-300






A Roma vende i libri per aiutare i poveri = In Rome he sells books to help the poor.

Plan de la justice de Dieu sur la terre

Ç’est ici la jalousie de l’eternel = This is the jealousy of the Eternal

Affligée, tempetée, rejoui-toi, voici ton Roi qui vient t epouser, & se rendre victorieux sur tes ennemis = Sorrowful, Tempted, Rejoice; behold your King who comes to marry, and make himself victorious over your enemies

Quand vous aurez saccagé, vous serez saccagés, car la lumière est apparue dans les ténèbres pour les détruire = When you have ransacked, you will be ransacked, for the light has appeared in the darkness to destroy them.


Plan de la justice de Dieu, sur la terre dans ces derniers jours, et du relèvement de la chûte de l’homme par son péché. [Part 2:] Quand vous aurez saccagé, vous serez saccagé: car la Lumière est apparue dans les Ténèbres , signed Jean Allut, Charles Portalès, Nicolas Facio ([Place of publication not identified]: Imprimé par les soins de N. F. [Nicolas Fatio de Duillier], 1714). Graphic Arts Collection 2019 in process

This posthumous collection of sermons by the charismatic Camisard Élie Marion (1678-1713) includes a wonderful allegorical frontispiece to part two. Marion became a spokesman for “the armed rebellion of the mostly illiterate Camisards, clandestine Protestant groups in the mountainous redoubts of the Cévennes, whose strength continued to grow during the first few years of the 18th century.” Their revolt culminated in the War of the Cévennes, which “opposed no more than 3000 Camisards against 20,000 dragoons over a period of two years” (Oxford DNB).

At the engraving’s center a blindfolded woman (representing the true church) is being pulled in four different directions by four priests of Christian religions: Calvinism, Lutheranism, Rome, and Greek orthodoxy. Between the priests four unidentified monarchs draw their swords and stand ready to attack. The above translations are rough and if anyone has a better suggestion, they can be changed.

For more about Marion, see:

Clarke Garrett, Spirit possession and popular religion: from the Camisards to the Shakers (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987).  BR112 .G37 1987


Mary Heebner, Cassandra, a poem by Stephen Kessler; images by Mary Heebner ([Santa Barbara, Calif.]: Simplemente Maria Press, MMXIX [2019]). 1 folded sheet (20 panels); approximately 26 x 500 cm folded to 26 x 26 cm + 1 booklet. Copy 10 of 25. Acquired with matching funds provided by the Program in Hellenic Studies with the support of the Stanley J. Seeger Hellenic Fund. Graphic Arts Collection GAX 2019 in process

The illustrations are adapted from the collage series Veiled/Unveiled (2018). The poem is from “Garage Elegies”, Black Widow Press, 2018.

“Design by Simplemente Maria Press. All text is printed letterpress from polymer plates, typeset in Spectrum MT, by John Balkwill, The Lumino Press, Santa Barbara, California. The images are printed digitally, with some debossing on Legacy Etching cotton rag paper. Individual collage and hand-painting is added to each page by the artist.

The booklet containing the poem, colophon and notes on the mythological Cassandra is handsewn with a Legacy etching cover over Saint-Armand handmade cotton paper.

The accordion structure which opens out over 75 inches, and the booklet rest in a zinc box, made by David Shelton Studios, Santa Barbara, California, with a drawing etched on the lid of the powder-coated box by Joel Sherman, at M Studio, University of California, Santa Barbara.”–Colophon.


With your swampy voice, your electric hair,
rhythm of reeds tideswayed in the rivershallows,
sinuous strings, sidemen on the bank keeping the beat,
you sing bad news with a sound of sweet illusions, of doom
that is not a disaster but merely inevitable, what anyone would expect
if they took a deep look at the evidence everywhere, beauty and truth
entwined with death, cruelty on the loose, tenderness barely enduring
under the lash of chaos muted by coercion—those rules
even the stupid can understand—and out of such murky depths
some lovely myth may rise in song to beggar disbelief.
[selection of text]

Interview with Mary Heebner from Atelier Visit on Vimeo.

What does the word ‘print’ mean?

Association of Print Scholars—picture

Modern Fine Printing—text

Print Council of America—picture

American Printing History Association—text

Print Club London—picture

Printing Historical Society—text

Princeton Print Club—picture


Out of print—text

Print collection—picture

Print on demand—text

First printing, Second printing—text

Get into print—text


Printed Matter—text


Print and then sign—text

Print Quarterly—picture

Print collector—picture

The print is too small—text

Nature print—picture

Print or online edition—text

Print Catalogues and Databases: Past, Present, and Future

The Fourth Annual APS (Association of Print Scholars) Distinguished Scholar Lecture will be held today, January 25, 2019, at the City University of New York. Titled “Print Catalogues and Databases: Past, Present, and Future,” Antony Griffiths, FBA, is expected to speak to a standing-room audience of students, curators, historians, collectors, conservators, and dealers.

Griffiths will share his long-term work on the British Museum’s online print catalogue and the implications of this work for other institutions and future scholarship on the history of prints. As many collection databases are being merged with a broad range of other mediums in online databases, the loss of image specific information and art historical data is a serious concern to us all.

Antony Griffiths is the Former Keeper of the Department of Prints and Drawings, British Museum, where he served from 1991 to 2011. He was also Slade Professor of Fine Art at the University of Oxford for the 2014/2015 academic year, where he delivered a series of lectures in conjunction with his book, The Print Before Photography: An Introduction to European Printmaking 1550–1820.

Please note that the lecture will be recorded and is to be made available online for APS members and the general public.

The Association of Print Scholars (APS) is a non-profit organization that encourages innovative and interdisciplinary methodological approaches to the history of printmaking. By maintaining an active website, sponsoring working groups, and hosting periodic symposia and lectures, APS facilitates dialogue and community among its members and promotes the dissemination of their ideas and scholarship. APS supports research grants and sponsors projects in the digital humanities that advance knowledge of printmaking. Membership is open to anyone whose research focuses on printmaking across all geographic regions and chronological periods.